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Home > Materials > Concrete > Concrete materials and applications

Concrete materials and applications


Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in `panel¿ or `block¿ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features ¿ process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations ¿ with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00 

Blastfurnace slag and steel slag: their use as aggregates
This Information Paper provides specifiers and users with information on the types of slag products available and their recommended uses. This information is of particular interest to engineers involved in the construction and maintenance of highways, docks and similar paved areas. It includes some frequently asked questions, together with sources of further help and information, and codes and standards relevant to the production, testing and use of slag products. IP18/01 

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements
Manufacture of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements requires less energy than conventional Portland cements and produces lower carbon dioxide emissions. This report presents background information on these cements, and reports on practical work to assess their performance in concrete. It demonstrates that CSA cements can be used to produce durable concrete with physical properties comparable to equivalent Portland cement concrete. The research aimed to balance environmental impact, cost and physical properties and has investigated two main aspects: blends of CSA cement with materials such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag and calcium sulfate, which have been found to have good physical properties and to be suitable for use in precast concrete manufacture; and CSA cement with a high iron content allowing a wider range of raw materials to be used in manufacture. BR496 

Changes in Portland cement properties and their effect on concrete
Discusses how historical changes in OPC have resulted in significant increases in strength and Codes of Practice have increased permissable stresses in line with these enabling design for higher strengths at earlier stages. This could lead to less cement being used in design mixes. Advises that specifications need to make allowances for the changes to avoid any adverse effects on durability. IP3/86 

Concrete strength: the effect of ocean-depth water pressure
Describes a laboratory study of the effect of immersion in water at pressure on the strength of concrete specimens. Compression and flexure tests were carried out under water pressure and after depressurisation. The facility described is available for commercial tests. IP6/00 

Concrete with minimal or no primary aggregate content
This Paper describes the results of a pilot study to investigate ways of reducing the volume of primary aggregates in concrete. The study encompassed a number of alternative technologies in the design of concrete mixes. Three technologies were evaluated in the laboratory: foamed concrete, high volume fly ash concrete and dry-pressed concrete. An environmental assessment was also undertaken. Possible applications were assessed to evaluate possible savings in primary aggregate consumption.  IP12/04 

Design of normal concrete mixes
The second edition of this best-selling book remains the standard guide on concrete mix design. Amendments have been made to allow for changes in the terminology and materials used. BR331 

Determination of the chloride and cement contents of hardened concrete
Gives guidance on the locations and frequency of sampling, on the removal of samples from the concrete structure, on simplified on-site methods for determining the chloride and cement ent of samples and on presentation of the results. IP21/86 

Early age acceptance of concrete
A full-scale seven-storey in-situ advanced reinforced concrete building frame designed to Eurocode 2 was constructed in the BRE Cardington laboratory using a range of concrete mixes and construction techniques. This provided a focus for a number of construction-phase research investigations. The one described here (task 6) was concerned with early age acceptance of concrete. BR387 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR243 

Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials
This report summarises a study undertaken to identify how to increase the efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. It reviews standards and specifications, assesses the reasons and extent of overspecification and recommends how overspecification can be overcome. BR244 

Energy efficient concrete walls using EPS permanent formwork
Discusses the buildability aspects of, and the adequacy of the structural fabric provided by, EPS permanent formwork systems. IP9/98 

Energy-efficient in-situ concrete housing using EPS formwork
This report describes the method of housing construction using expanded polystyrene (EPS) permanent insulating formwork. The EPS moulds are manufactured in ‘panel’ or ‘block’ forms and assembled to provide the formwork into which concrete is poured to construct the main walls. This innovative construction technique may have an important role to play in improving energy efficiency in UK housing. BR347 

European concreting practice: France
Contains a brief review of the French approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards. IP5/93 

European concreting practice: Italy
Provides a brief review of the Italian approach to the construction of concrete structures. It is intended to provide background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP17/92 

European concreting practice: Sweden
These papers review the various approaches to the construction of concrete structures. They provide the background information that will help UK construction professionals understand the requirements for harmonised European Standards and Codes. IP16/92 

European concreting practice: West Germany
Contains a brief review of the West German approach to the production of durable concrete construction. It is intended to provide useful background information, for contractors, consultants and other construction professionals, in the movement towards harmonised European Standards and Codes of Practice. IP3/91 

European concreting practice: a summary
Many freestanding walls have been in service for decades or even centuries and are still an attractive and practical feature of town and country landscapes. But if these walls are not well built to start with, they can fail early in their life. And if the local conditions change (eg the exposure is increased when neighbouring buildings are demolished or a nearby tree grows too big) a well established, soundly built wall can be damaged or can even collapse completely. Before starting on any repair, whether a minor patching up or a major rebuilding, it is important to find out what caused the problem. Failure to do that can easily lead to a recurrence. This Guide aims to help in assessing the damage in freestanding masonry walls, establishing the cause, and carrying out an effective repair. It does not cover parapets or walls built as retaining walls. IP6/93 

Formwork for modern, efficient concrete construction
Modern formwork systems are designed for speed and efficiency. This publication describes generic types of modern formwork system that are widely available, and considers their applications, advantages and main features related to health and safety and sustainability performance. They are engineered to provide increased accuracy and minimize waste in construction and most have heath and safety features built-in. The main systems in use are table form/flying form, system column formwork, horizontal and vertical panel systems, jump form, slip form, and tunnel form. This guide sets out their key features – process efficiency, safety, sustainability and other considerations – with numerous illustrations of the systems in use on-site. Features / Benefits Concise guidance on process efficiency, safety, other sustainability features and considerations for formwork Covers latest developments in concrete formwork technology Includes 38 photos of modern formwork systems in use Readership Contractors, engineers, architects, temporary works designers, formwork suppliers and contractors BR495 

HAC concrete in the UK
This Special Digest explains current guidance for assessing HAC concrete construction, taking account of developments since 1975. Recent information comes mostly from site investigations of structures; the findings have a bearing on how HAC construction should be appraised. This Digest also describes testing regimes to identify HACC and check for chemical attack. It assesses the current level of protection afforded to the reinforcement and gives advice on durability management, maintenance and refurbishment. SD3 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to establish whether the deleterious effect on strength development of micro silica in very high grade concrete also occurred in lower grades. In very high grade concrete containing micro silica, there is a loss of flexural strength of about one-tenth relative to the 28-day value, at age 1 year. This study showed that the severity of the retrogression decreases as the grade is decreased. It was also found that the strength retrogression observed in the very high grade concrete with micro silica did not worsen at age 3 years. BR372 

High grade concrete
This publication deals with the results of a study to assess how stress-strain behaviour is affected by increasing the concrete grade. It is found that a power equation fits the stress-strain data for all grades of concrete, in both compression and tension. The main conclusions relating to the structural use of high grade concrete are presented in this report.  BR373 

High grade concrete
This report deals with the sustained compressive loading capacity and the shear performance of high grade concrete. The particular focus of attention is how these two aspects of structural performance change as the concrete grade is increased. BR374 

Innovation in concrete frame construction
This Information Paper reviews innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and identifies future trends. Many innovations trialled at the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington are being used and are regarded as important by industry. Among other innovations, lightweight formwork and computer-based technology are seen to be the most influential. Green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of training and labour are expected to be main drivers for innovation in the concrete frame industry in the coming decade. This Information Paper is a summary of a detailed report Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015[1], BR483, details of which are given on page 6. IP11/05 

Innovation in concrete frame construction 1995-2015
Examines innovation in concrete frame construction over the past 10 years and looks into the future to predict likely drivers for future innovation. Drawing on the proceedings of a workshop held at BRE and detailed interviews with industry practitioners, the report finds that the research from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington has had a positive impact on the concrete frame construction industry and that many of the innovations trialled there are regarded as important by industry. The major trends and issues likely to be the focus of innovation in the concrete frame construction industry over the coming decade are identified as being green issues, efficiency of production and aspects of labour and training. BR483 

Low energy cements
Portland cement and blended Portland cements are currently the only economic binders for concrete that match the performance and durability requirements under the range of conditions to which it is exposed. However, Portland cement manufacture is very energy intensive and large amounts of CO2 are produced.This report reviews the field of low energy cements and, in particular, belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements. It includes a literature review and describes a testing programme carried out at BRE to assess the performance of belite-based cements produced on a commercial scale in China. The results show that concretes made with these cements have good early strength development and excellent sulfate resistance. Their resistance to carbonation, however, may be lower than that of Portland cement concrete. BR421 

Magnesian limestone aggregate in concrete: performance; durability; testing; European standards
A testing programme on Magnesian limestones from 30 sources has been used to demonstrate that the performance of these materials in concrete compares favourably with that of harder and more consistant materials such as Carboniferous limestones. Research has also shown a good correlation between durability and the size of pores within the aggregates. Both strength and frost resistance are discussed in relation to new specification guidance for aggregates drafted for inclusion in European Standards. This paper will help those responsible for the design and specification of concrete and for the planning of aggregate supply. It replaces IP2/91 which is now withdrawn. IP1/98 

Marine aggregates in concrete
Marine aggregates make a significant contribution to the supply of aggregates in the UK and have been used in many prestigious structures, as well as in everyday concreting applications. Marine aggregates can be treated in the same way as land-based aggregates except that consideration of the content of chloride and shell may be important. This Digest considers the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to the requirements in British Standards, guidelines for preventing alkali-silica reaction, and European Standards. DG473 

Non-ferrous metal wastes as aggregates in highway construction
This Information Paper discusses general considerations associated with the use of industrial by-products in construction and describes the use of by-products from non-ferrous metals production as bound aggregate. Slag derived from the production of zinc has been used for demonstration roadways made from concrete and asphalt. Concrete containing crushed refractory bricks from aluminium smelters has also been produced and assessed. In situ performance of the roads and leaching capacity of the materials has also been evaluated. Features and benefits Summarises output from series of research projects carried out by BRE in conjunction with Scott Wilson Describes how wastes and by-products can be successfully used in road construction Reviews performance of concrete and asphalt trial roadways Readership Highway engineers, local authorities, specifiers and other users of by-product materials in construction IP8/06 

Performance of limestone-filled cements
Brings together the papers presented at a seminar of the BRE/BCA/Cement Industry Working Party. Includes results of tests to determine the performance of cements containing additions of limestone, particularly the possible effects on concrete durability. BR245 

Porous aggregate in concrete: Jurassic limestones
Planning for future resource utilisation requires a knowledge of the performance of materials available, whether or not they are currently in general use. Similarly, specifiers and their clients need to have confidence in the long-term durability of previously untried materials. This paper summarises a study carried out with these objectives in mind, and shows that plain concrete containing crushed Jurassic limestone aggregate can be strong and frost-resistant but gains little from air entrainment. IP2/86 

Porous aggregates in concrete
Long-term durability studies have been undertaken on concrete made from crushed rock at present little used in concrete, in order to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give specifiers and clients confidence of lifetime performance in structures. Concretes made with porous sandstone aggregates have mostly performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Aggregates producing poorer performance had high shrinkage and were uneconomic to use because of poor strength development of concrete. However, it is concluded that a significant proportion of sandstones from NW England constitute a valuable resource and no special testing is needed. IP6/04 

Porous aggregates in concrete: Jurassic limestones
This Information Paper reports on long-term BRE studies of the durability of concrete made from crushed rock sources that at present are little used in concrete. Such information is needed to assess the resource potential of these materials and to give confidence of lifetime performance in structures. After 20 years of unsheltered outdoor exposure, concretes made with crushed Jurassic limestone aggregates have performed well in resisting frost damage and protecting embedded metal. Also, the porosity of the aggregate reduces the expansive effect of alkali silica reactions. IP9/01 

Porous aggregates in concrete: sandstones from NW England
Carboniferous sandstones are a largely untapped resource of aggregates for concrete. This paper, addressed to all concerned with the planning and specification of aggregates, surveys the range of materials available and their suitability for various purposes. IP16/89 

Process efficient concreting
This report describes a study of the concreting processes within the construction of the European Concrete Building Project in-situ concrete frame at Cardington. The objective of that project was to re-engineer the business process of such buildings in order to reduce costs, increase speed and improve quality. Recommendations have been made which should improve the efficiency of the concreting process and construction as a whole without compromising the quality of the finished structure. BR403 

Recycled aggregates
Recycled aggregates (crushed concrete and brick masonry) have long been used in construction, mainly in lower grade applications. Due to a lack of suitable specifications, there has been little basis for applying quality control which would enable the materials of suitable quality to be used in higher grade applications such as structural concrete. Recent advances now enable this improved guidance to be given in the UK. It will be of interest to architects, structural engineers, specifiers, and professionals in the aggregates and recycling industries. DG433 

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete panels
Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete (RAAC) panels are widely used in mainland Europe but in the UK some serviceability problems have been encountered with pre-1980 panels. This paper describes the concerns about performance of RAAC panels designed before 1980, laboratory testing of panels after 20 years service, and newly fabricated panels, mechanisms that may influence the in-service behaviour, new design guidance in prEN 12602, and testing RAAC panels fabricated to the new design guidance. IP7/02 

Sea-dredged aggregates in concrete
Discusses the basic facts about marine aggregates in relation to BS 8110. Also discusses the structural use of concrete, the latest guidelines to prevent ASR, and BS 882 which all aggregates must pass to be acceptable for structural reinforced concrete. IP7/87 

Self-compacting concrete
This Information Paper provides an introduction to the use of self-compacting concrete, which was originally developed in Japan to bring improved quality and durability to the concrete construction process. Over the last 10 years it has become increasingly used in Europe and other parts of the world for both precast and cast in situ concrete, where its benefits also include reduced health and safety risks, increased productivity, and cost and labour savings. IP3/04 

Shrinkage of natural aggregates in concrete
Discusses the effects on concrete of using shrinkable natural aggregates, recommends suitable uses for concrete made with particular aggregates and offers guidance on the design precautions to be taken. It should be used in conjunction with BS 812-120 Method for testing and classifying drying shrinkage of aggregates in concrete. DG357 

Superplasticisers in concrete
This report has been prepared to review existing information and knowledge on the use of superplasticisers. It considers their effect on long-term performance of concrete and recommends research work needed to obtain further information on their suitability for improving durability of structural concrete. BR313 

Tension tests for concrete
Although not used as often as compression tests for concrete, tension tests are needed in order to fully assess structural performance. Because axial tension tests are difficult, many alternative methods have been tried though only a few are specified in standards. This Digest covers the five principal categories of tension tests: axial, splitting, flexure, fluid pressure and torsion. Variations of these are described, discussed and compared. All the methods have their uses: the choice depends upon the application and the structural context, and the practical considerations of performing the test. DG451 

The manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil
Describes the investigation of the manufacture of synthetic aggregates from colliery spoil. Samples were tested for strength and durability and various processing routes are considred and costed. IP30/81 

The use of crushed rock aggregates in concrete
Describes an investigation by BRE in which mechanical properties were measured on 550 mixes from coarse and fine samples from 24 UK quarries. Durability was assessed on a further 52 mixes. BR18 

Use of recycled aggregates in concrete
In some countries crushed concrete and masonry waste are successfully recycled for use as aggregates in concrete. This paper discusses the latest developments in the use and specification of recycled aggregates. IP5/94 

Volumetric strain of concrete under uniaxial compression
Uniaxial compression tests were carried out on concrete prisms made from concrete grades ranging from normal to very high grade. Axial and lateral strains were measured, giving the volumetric strain. The applied stress carried at minimum volume was compared with the long-term strength of concrete under sustained loading, and the effect of concrete grade was studied. The results were used to investigate the power curve for stress-strain relationships, and simple formulae for initial stiffness and Poisson's ratio were obtained. IP15/02 

Water reducing admixtures in concrete
This Paper introduces the benefits of water reducing admixtures for concrete production and the construction process. Admixtures are widely used in concrete throughout continental Europe to achieve higher workability leading to easier placing and compaction. The benefits include improved durability, quality and consistency of concrete, cost savings both in terms of economical mix design, and speeding the construction process. IP15/00