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Home > Building elements and structures > Doors, windows and glazing

Doors, windows and glazing


Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83 

Accidents involving glass in domestic doors and windows: some implications for design
Describes some of the findings of a BRE study of accidents involving glass in doors and windows and suggests some implications for designers and building occupiers. IP18/81 

Automatic doors and windows for use by elderly and disabled people
This guide covers the following items: automatic integrated controls for use with entrance doors and windows in homes; issues, such as integration into a home bus system; and related aspects of windows and doors, including performance, durability and maintenance. Procedures for the specification and installation for both doors and windows are described. BR334 

Doors, windows, glazing and cladding pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on doors, windows, glazing and cladding. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 23 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP256 

Double glazing for heat and sound insulation
Discusses double glazing design to meet the need for improved heat insulation and protection against external noise. Looks at practical considerations peculiar to the various systems now available. DG379 

Double-glazing units
This guide describes the components and methods used to manufacture double-glazing units, the factors that affect their performance, and gives guidance on the preferred glazing systems. Guidance is also given on the measures that can be taken during procurement and installation of double-glazing units to maximise their life expectancy. BR280 

Durability of insulating glass units
This report gives the results of a study on the durability of insulating glass units under natural exposure. Measurement systems have been developed to monitor temperature, relative humidity and liquid moisture in glazing cavities and rebate areas around insulating glass units in window frames. Implications for durability are discussed. (Available on CD-ROM 11/98) BR362 

Ergonomic requirements for windows and doors
Suggets ergonomic requirements for windows and doors, derived from test data on the functional strength of people. IP2/82 

Factory glazed windows
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497 

Factory glazed windows. Part 1: Introduction and the glazing process
Historically there have been problems with controlling the quality of glazing on building sites leading to failures in insulating glass units. Glazing of units in factories offers the potential for higher quality work than for those glazed on site where poor weather and poor site conditions can produce damaged or defective units. In the absence of existing guidelines, BRE has developed under a Partners in Innovation project funded by the DTI and the glazing and building industries good practice guidance to maximise the benefits of factory glazing. The guidance, prepared as this two-part Digest, is based on research and good practice. It is not prescriptive but sets out the general principles, supported by drawings, involved in factory glazing. Part 1 of this Digest introduces the subject and describes the types of insulating glazing units and the preparation of a suitable factory workspace. Part 2 deals with transport, storage, installation, maintenance and performance of factory glazed windows. DG497/1 

Factory glazed windows. Part 2 : Transport, storage and installation
Premature failure of an insulating glass unit (IGU) is often due to a rapid permeation of moisture through the edge seal and into the air gap of the unit. The reasons for premature failure investigated by BRE are numerous; these often originate with difficult conditions on building sites and include: * poor quality of window design * poor quality materials * poor glazing methods and poor quality of glazing workmanship * chemical degradation of glazing materials due to contact with reactive substances. * exposure of sealant materials to ultra violet radiation Many, if not most, of these causes of failure originate with poor site conditions. Part 2 of this Digest describes the packaging, transportation to site and storage of IGUs; their installation in buildings; and maintenance, and performance testing and monitoring. DG497/2 

Falls from domestic windows
This paper and its companion IP 18/93 summarise statistical studies of the occurrences of falls from windows and balconies using data from the Home Accident Surveillance System and coroners' inquest notes. They describe the principal findings and likely implications for designers and occupiers of dwellings. IP17/93 

Heat losses through windows
Shows that heat losses through windows are affected by radiator siting (under the window or on a side wall), by sill depth, curtains, double glazing and low-emissivity glazing, and that trickle ventilators have little effect on heat loss. Describes a useful experimental strategy for measuring heat losses through windows and concludes that more research is needed into the influence of window geometry. IP12/93 

Highly glazed buildings: assessing and managing the risks
Highly glazed buildings are buildings that contain large amounts of glazing in the form of glass. The glazing can be at considerable height above ground level and can be vertical, horizontal, sloping or overhanging in aspect. Working with large amounts of glass, particularly at height, can present operatives with significant risk when, for example, installing, cleaning or replacing glass. This book presents risk-based guidance for practitioners for the safe glazing of highly glazed buildings. It deals primarily with the safety of workers involved in glazing work, and is mainly for use by construction professionals who are not necessarily expert in glazing issues. Common hazards and risks, assessment of them, and suitable risk management actions are presented in tabular format for the four main stages in the life cycle of such buildings design, construction, maintenance and deconstruction. A procedure and an associated worksheet for risk assessment and risk management are given.  BR482 

Hot air repair of PVC-U profiles
BRE has investigated the effectiveness of hot air repair techniques on dents in PVC-U profiles, typically seen as a result of damage caused by a burglar. Satisfactory repair on PVC-U frames requires a high level of training and skill. Where feasible, it is a more cost-effective and environmentally friendly solution than replacement. Trials on colour fastness of repaired profiles under conditions of artificial weathering indicate no significant effects on colour or gloss. IP12/01 

Hot air repair of PVC-U window and door frames
The use of hot air repair on PVC-U frames is relatively new, but appears to be growing rapidly. It requires a high level of training and skill to produce satisfactory repairs. If carried out well, it seems unlikely that repair will have long-term adverse consequences for the durability of the repaired window or door. This Good Repair Guide describes current practice, potential problems associated with a new technique and how repair work might develop in the future. GR31 

Impact standards for glass
Results of research to determine the impact energy and forces extended during glass and human impact rests. Comparison of tests ised in BS 6206 and BS EN 12600. IP1/05 

Installing domestic automatic door controls
The installation of automatic door controls can assist elderly and disabed people with access into and out of their homes. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues concerning the installation of the various components of the system. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed. GG48 

Installing domestic automatic window controls
The installation of automatic window controls can assist elderly and disabled people to use windows where they would not be able to use manual hardware. This Good Building Guide describes available controls and how they work. It advises specifiers, manufacturers and installers on the best use of controls for disabled people and elderly users, and details technical issues relating to the installation to different types of frames. Involvement of the user in the specification process is essential. Questions that are commonly asked and potential problem areas are also discussed.  GG49 

Insulating glazing units
Insulating glass units (IGUs) sealed double- or triple-glazing units are commonly installed in timber, PVC-U, aluminium, steel and composite frames. They have better thermal insulation properties than single panes of glass and enable reductions in energy use and allow designers to meet the requirements of building regulations. This Digest covers good practice in glazing with IGUs, with particular emphasis on long-term durability. It covers the main standards for glazing, general principles of good glazing, site and factory glazing, and specific requirements of different types of frame. It also gives a maintenance checklist for ensuring continued sound performance of the system.  DG453 

Level external thresholds: reducing moisture penetration and thermal bridging
Level thresholds, where the internal and external walking surfaces are level, or almost level, are increasingly being specified to give access to the elderly and disabled. Level thresholds present a potential weakness in the weatherproofing resistance of door openings which may let water in. There is also a risk of thermal bridging at the threshold. This Good Building Guide describes some of the technical risks associated with the design of level thresholds and some detailing solutions. GG47 

PVC-U windows
This Digest draws on BRE research into the durability of PVC-U windows and their performance in service. It compares the key characteristics with those of alternative materials and will make specifiers aware of standards and other requirements that might influence their choice between competing makes of PVC-U windows. DG404 

Plastics external glazing
Discusses the types and applications of plastics glazing materials and the factors that influence their durability, especially the combination of ultraviolet light and thermal effects. DG430 

Repairing or replacing lintels
Housing rehabilitation often reveals deteriorating, inadequate, absent or poorly installed lintels. This Guide explains when repair is possible and when replacement is advisable. It also gives general advice on good practice during replacement operations. GG1 

Repairing timber windows
The first of two parts, this Guide describes how to investigate what is wrong with a defective window and what to do about water leakage. GR10 

Selecting windows by performance
Poor or inadequate specification is a common cause of unsatisfactory performance of windows. Reliance on sales literature, or on claims to meet British Standards, can be inadequate without sufficient understanding of the performance required. This Digest identifies performance requirements and assessment tests for windows. DG377 

Sloping glazing: understanding the risks
The use of glass in many applications has increased in recent years and a number of cases of glass breakage have given rise to concerns, especially where the glass is in sloping glazing. Glazing falling on building users can lead to injury and, although this is relatively rare, the risks must be properly assessed and managed. Building regulations do not provide advice on overhead and sloping glazing. This book gives guidance on the risks of failure of glazing in sloping glazing and the assessment and management of those risks. It describes the main types of glazing used in sloping glazing and the factors associated with glazing failures. Risk assessment and management is fully covered, with an example risk assessment. BR471 

The selection of doors and doorsets by performance
In the absence of generally-available guidance, this paper provides information to aid specifiers in the selection of doors and doorsets. IP2/81 

The selection of window hardware by performance
Provides guidance on the selection by performance of selected items of hardware, namely hinges, fasteners and stays, for use on windows up to 1 m2 in area. IP16/82 

The weatherstripping of windows and doors
Identifies the main types of seal known to be available, outlines broadly the merits and disadvantages of each, and provides general guidance on seal selection and application. IP16/81 

Weathering of white external PVC-U
PVC-U is one of the most widely used plastics materials for building components but compared with other materials used in the construction industry, it is relatively new. This Digest describes the weathering qualities of self coloured PVC-U used externally. White is by far the most common colour for most applications, having the advantage over dark colours of remaining much cooler in strong sunshine. DG440 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic window controls
The potential for increasing the use of automatic windows in housing for elderly or disabled people, children and shorter people, and for inaccessible locations such as rooflights is significant. Purchasers should consider whole life costs, as well as initial costs of the controls, as maintenance can significantly affect ongoing costs. Automatic window controls generally work well when installation is good, and user satisfaction is high. However, poor installation can lead to failure or the need for maintenance.  IP3/02 

Window to wall jointing
Provides information on the detailing which, under test conditions, has been found to be effective in preventing water penetration across a range of window-to-wall joints. IP7/83