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Home > Fire and security > Fire assessment, design and modelling

Fire assessment, design and modelling


A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951¿1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in `fire engineering¿, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1¿4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time¿temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92 

A hydrocarbon fire standard
Reports the Fire Research Station's findings of an assessment of structural fire resistance, commissioned by the Offshore Energy Technology Board. BR65 

A model scale study of the effects of the location of a fire within a compartment.
A study has been carried out using a 1/10th scale model to examine the effect of different fire locations within a compartment, on the mass flow rate of gases toward a compartment have been studied. These included the back, centre, side and corner of the compartment. FN1 

A note on flame length and upward flame spread
Recent engineering applications of theories of upward flame spread have used empirical data to describe the connection between the gas and solid phases. At its simplest this approach requires a mean net heat flux to be given over the length of the flame ahead of the pyrolysing zone. Over this distance an output of heat release per unit area is specified. This Fire Note comments on the difference between a linear law and the more conventional 2/3 power law. It explores some variations in the simple thermal model of upward flame spread, and uses it to examine the role of sideways spread. FN6 

A short history of the Fire Research Station, Borehamwood
This book sets out the background to current knowledge of fire and its application to fire safety, as well as the culture and the people behind the research conducted by FRS from the opening of the fire testing station at Borehamwood in 1935 up to 1992, the 200th anniversary of the first organised research in the United Kingdom. BR268 

Assessment of fire damaged structures
Provides some guidance and references on the effects of fire on building materials and structural components so that decisions as to repairability are not based wholly on superficial appearances. IP24/81 

Concrete structures in fire
This guide provides engineers with an overview of the structural fire engineering design process and the techniques available to ensure the safe and economical fire design of concrete structures. It is the result of a collaborative research project funded by the UK government and the concrete industry. It will be of particular value to structural engineers familiar with the ambient temperature design of concrete structures but unfamiliar with the process of structural fire engineering design. It will also be of interest to regulators and specialist fire engineering consultants. It covers: - aspects of the performance of concrete in fire - comparison of UK standards for the design of concrete structures in fire with European standards (EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2) - numerical analysis and simulation procedures for concrete structures in fire. Features / Benefits Draws on recent large-scale research to provide practical guidance for structural engineers Compares designs obtained using European and UK codes Worked examples enable comparisons between tabulated and simplified methods Readership Structural engineers, concrete designers and contractors, fire engineering consultants BR490 

Design Fires Database
Fire engineering assessments frequently depend upon assumptions made about the rate of fire growth. This is important to the design of the means of escape, particularly where smoke control is involved, and to the assessment of structural fire resistance. Since there is a limited number of accepted design fires at present, their applicability to particular situations is uncertain; this data is an important influence, therefore, in developing a consensus on the underlying design fire assumptions. The 'Characterisation of fire for design purposes' project was undertaken by BRE for DTLR. The aim was to obtain quantitative data on the growth rates of a number of realistic design fires; this data could then help fire safety engineers, designers and regulators design fire safety systems. The object was to establish a database of specific fire characteristics for at least 12 realistic fire scenarios; characteristics included heat release rates, smoke production rates, CO/CO2 ratios and gas concentration levels, with sprinklers both in and out of operation.  AP156 

Design approaches for smoke control in atrium buildings
Gives general principles for the design of smoke control systems, with simplified design procedures for an ideal model and further guidance on frequently encountered problems. It offers a linked network of approaches that lend themselves to computer programming. BR258 

Design for fire safety: fire safety engineering and Approved Document B
This guide has been developed to assist architects, building control officers and other professionals considering a fire safety engineering alternative to the precise requirements set out in the Approved Document to Part B of the Building Regulation. EP36 

Design principles for smoke ventilation in enclosed shopping centres
This report summarises the design advice from the Fire Research Station, drawing on the experience and ideas of a number of sources. BR186 

External fire spread: building separation and boundary distances
Describes different methods for calculating adequate space separation between buildings. Prepared in support of Approved Document B4 to the Building Regulations for England and Wales. BR187 

Fire modelling
This Digest explains the methodologies being used for the computer simulation of fire. It focuses on models of the fire itself - the essentially gas phase phenomenon at the heart of any fire simulation. It explains fire growth and spread, and the two basic types of computer simulation methodologies: zonal models, and the more universal field models that use the specialist discipline of computational fluid dynamics. Two types of field model are described which employ alternative approaches using Reynolds Averaged and Large Eddy methodologies to capture the influences of turbulence.  DG367 

Fire pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on fire assessment, fire safety and performance in fire. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 16 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP259 

Fire safety considerations in the design of structural sandwich panels
Lightweight sandwich panels are being increasingly used in buildings. They often employ combustible foamed plastic cores which can, without careful design, introduce a life hazard if fire occurs. This paper will be of use to building designers and architects, as well as approved authorities and includes a checklist of design guidance. IP4/87 

Fires in dwellings - an investigation of actual fires. Fires in BISF houses
Describes the fire hazards which arose in BISF (British Iron and Steel Federation) houses, and compares them with those in more traditionally constructed houses. IP3/82 

Guidelines for the construction of fire-resisting structural elements
Establishes guidelines for the construction of fire resisting structural elements and includes tables of notional periods of fire resistance based on current test data; it also makes revisions to tables and text concerning concrete, masonry and timber included in the earlier 1982 edition. BR128 

Ignition and growth of fire in a room
Based on years of research both in the UK and abroad, this paper provides vital background information for the understanding of how fires start and spread. IP4/86 

Mathematical fire modelling and its applications to fire safety design
Presents a compilation of the overhead projection slides from a course describing fire modelling. BR223 

On the stratification of line plumes
The National Fire Protection Association code on smoke control includes the result obtained by Morton, Taylor and Turner in their classic paper for the height an axisymmetric plume will rise in an atmosphere with a density linearly varying with height. This Fire Note applies the work of Morton et al to a two-dimensional plume. Some comments are made concerning a non-linear temperature or density gradient in the surroundings. The theory gives a lower bound for this non-linear stratification. FN5 

P H Thomas, Fire Research Station 1951–1986
Facsimile of 34 papers covering the author's work in fire research over 35 years. Topics include 'hot spot theory', and flashover compartment fires. Of enormous value to the fire science world as a reference document. BR80 

Passive fire precautions in LPS blocks of flats and maisonettes
General guidance on features which may need consideration when the conditions of large panel system dwellings are being examined for structural fire protection and means of escape. IP18/86 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This study aims to assess the potential of using scientific knowledge, physical models and software in ‘fire engineering’, and how this scientific knowledge can be used to classify construction products with respect to their hazards for people in fire situations. The first stage reviews the modelling methodology by presenting the following approaches to modelling: CFD-modelling, zone modelling and test-based modelling. Hazards from fire for people were also assessed. This study recommends research on reaction to fire of construction products.  EP38 

Smoke leakage through gaps in smoke curtains
Presents the results of research to study the characterisation of smoke leakage through vertical gaps in smoke curtains, from a smoky hot gas layer contained within a compartment formed by the smoke curtains. Such leakage could lead to dangerous conditions in areas adjoining a smoke compartment, with the possible formation of a hot gas layer, or even smoke logging, in designated safe areas. FN2 

Statistical studies of fires
This paper summarises some recent statistical studies carried out by the Fire Research Station to consider deliberately started fires and fires in road vehicles and hospitals. First-aid firefighting (ie tackling the fire before the fire brigade arrives) and unreported fires are also examined. IP17/91 

Structural fire engineering design
This set of four Digests contain guidance on structural fire engineering design. They bring together fire and structural engineering and provide a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. DG487 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/4 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest covers life safety aspects of fire engineering design and, in particular, life safety implications for structural engineering design. DG490 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest gives an overview of methods for predicting the thermal response of structures to fire. These methods provide the essential link between the description of the heating conditions due to the fire itself (see Digest 485) and the structural performance of building components (see Parts 1–4 of Digest 487). DG488 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. In this part, three broad design methodologies for masonry are described: traditional prescriptive, test based; simple performance based by combining test based and other data; via modelling DG487/3 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. Owing to its high thermal conductivity exposed steel will increase in temperature very quickly during a fire, losing strength and stiffness. The designer must ensure that any building will maintain its stability for a reasonable period should any accidental fire occur. This Digest presents the current available design tools to ensure stability of steel framed buildings during a fire. DG487/2 

Structural fire engineering design
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest summarises the design methods for assessing the performance of concrete structures in fire and considers related issues such as spalling of concrete and whole building behaviour. DG487/1 

Structural fire engineering design: fire development
This is one of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest provides information on methods to calculate the time–temperature response for building fires based on the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. DG485 

Structural fire engineering design: introduction
This is the first of a suite of Digests containing guidance on structural fire engineering design. The intention is to produce performance based guidance that brings together fire engineering and structural engineering and provides a framework within which designers are free to develop site specific solutions based on real performance criteria. The Digests contain information complementary to the existing and emerging fire engineering codes and standards. Each may be used in isolation or as part of the full suite. This Digest introduces the subject, provides essential background information and places the information in the context of the existing regulatory framework of the UK building regulations. DG484 

Subterranean fires in the UK - the problem
FRS survey into the incidence of subterranean fires in all types of site in the UK and in a range of materials, but mainly tipped domestic waste and coal waste. Many of the fires were difficult to control and a few could not be extinguished. IP3/89 

The development of a fire risk assessment model
Describes a model under development at FRS which will be used to prioritise remedial action and test the validity of new guidelines for building control officers IP8/92