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Home > Building elements and structures > Floors, flooring and stairs

Floors, flooring and stairs


Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts ¿ requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor¿s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93 

Alternating tread stairs
Details the results of a BRE survey into the safety and convenience of alternating tread stairs, which are commonly found with loft conversions of the late 1980s.  BR308 

BRE Screed tester: classifications of screeds, sampling and acceptance limits
Describes how the BRE Screed Tester can be used to assess the soundness of floor screeds. It classifies screeds into three categories according to their use and gives acceptance limits for each category. IP11/84 

Blocks with recycled aggregates: beam-and-block floors
Suspended floor systems constructed from inverted precast concrete T-beams with precast concrete block infill elements are a relatively new and expanding market. Infill blocks make only a minor contribution to the high performance achieved with such floors, and thus offer a low-risk route for the introduction of recycled aggregates. This paper details the results of a project in which blocks containing recycled aggregate were produced using conventional industrial plant and successfully tested in full-scale floor tests. It should be of interest to materials specifiers and the concrete/aggregate industry - particularly the precast and block industries and recyclers of construction and demolition materials. IP14/98 

Design of warehouse floors
Describes a new and more appropriate classification for use in the specification of warehouse floor loading. It has been developed from work on ground-bearing concrete slabs, but it is equally applicable to the specification of suspended slabs, either at ground level or in multi-storey construction. IP19/87 

Domestic floors
Five part set that describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. Part 1 Construction, insulation and damp-proofing. Part 2 Concrete floors, screeds and finishes. Part 3 Timber floors and decks. Part 4 Magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. Part 5 Wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28 

Domestic floors
Describes ground floor construction in new buildings and in rehabilitation work where floors are being replaced. It is the first of five parts, the other parts explain how to assess different types of floor construction for replacement or repair, and how to repair them. GG28/1 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of concrete floors, screeds and finishes and includes checklists for use when inspecting a floor. GG28/2 

Domestic floors: assessing them for replacement or repair
Deals with the most common forms of deterioration of timber floors and decks. GG28/3 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of magnesite, tiles, slabs and screeds. GG28/4 

Domestic floors: repairing or replacing floors and flooring
Gives guidance on replacement and repair of wood blocks and suspended timber. GG28/5 

Floor loading in warehouses
Identifies the types of storage and materials-handling systems currently in use in warehouses and gives examples of actual floor loads and pressures that may be imposed, with data from different storage systems, trucks and handling equipment. BR109 

Flooring, paving and setts – requirements for safety in use
This Paper summarises research into slip resistance of products in use, wear and abrasion of materials, and overall durability under vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The project concentrated on natural stone products but also included a comparison of similar products. The results were available to CEN/TC 178 Working Group 2 during the drafting of the European Standards for natural stone paving, setts and kerbs. This paper will be of interest to architects, specifiers, facilities managers, local authority highways engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and suppliers. IP10/00 

Floors and flooring
Revised edition - Floors and flooring describes the materials and production methods and criteria which are used in the construction of these major elements of buildings. A more specific purpose is to draw the attention of readers to the features of floors and flooring which ensure good performance, and to the things that go wrong so that they can be avoided. Drawing from BRE experience, this book provides the building professional with a checklist of points of concern, and where to obtain further information and advice. Particular effort has been given to providing the reader with visual illustrations where they will enhance points made in the text: over 200 photographs and 170 drawings of floors and floor construction details; also case studies, feature panels and checklists. A surveyor’s inspection list appears at the end of each of the chapters on floor types and coverings. Includes: Appendix A How to identify less recognisable floors and their substrates; Appendix B How to choose a flooring, plus 10 pages of references and further reading. BR460 

Floors, flooring and stairs pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on floors, flooring and stairs. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 13 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP260 

Heat losses through ground floors
For solid or suspended ground floors, it is not possible to calculate U-values from first principles, but the value of a basic construction can be adjusted according to the floor finish and any insulation. This Digest discusses how this adjustment can be made. DG145 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber floors
Gives general guidance and simple examples on increasing fire resistance for periods of up to one hour by adding protection to the underside of ceilings, over the floor boarding and between the joists. DG208 

Industrial platform floors: mezzanine and raised storage
This Digest has been prepared in response to difficulties experienced with the design and Building Regulation control of mezzanine raised storage platform floors. It aims to ease such difficulties by providing authoritative guidance on these specialised structures which are not specifically addressed in current Codes of practice. It gives guidance on imposed loading and chipboard decking, the two principal issues that cause the most difficulties.  DG437 

Insulating ground floors
Highlights typical installation techniques, materials, insulation thicknesses and potential technical risks in achieving improved thermal standards. It covers concrete ground floors insulated above or below the structure, concrete ground floors insulated around the edge, and insulated suspended timber ground floors. Warnings about service entries through insulated floors are given, e.g. water and waste pipes below the floor construction can be damaged by frost, electric cables enclosed within insulation may overheat.  GG45 

Joist hangers
This guide shows how to use joist hangers in new construction work. It stresses the importance of correct specification and installation to ensure good performance. GG21 

Propriety nosings for non-domestic stairs
This Paper provides guidance to designers and building managers on assessing the types of proprietary nosing for non-domestic stairs. It considers such factors as fastening and colour contrast. Manufacturers can use this guidance to determine potential demand for different types of nosing and to develop products to meet the requirements suggested. Choices can be made on material, contamination, shape, apparent variability between steps, size of the going. IP15/03 

Repairing and replacing ground floors
Covers faults that must be put right before refurbishment of floors can start. Gives advice on assessing the condition of two typical domestic ground floors (solid concrete and suspended timber) before starting refurbishment, and how to repair or replace them. GR17 

Safer floors
The consequences of slips, trips and stumbles around the home can be very serious, with a serious accident occurring every 80 seconds in the UK. Specifying flooring products that reduce this potential for slipping is therefore important. This Information Paper explains what test method should be used to assess a flooring product, what amount of slip resistance is considered appropriate and how slip resistance is affected by user behaviour and individual characteristics. It also highlights the special case of stairs and ramps. IP10/07 

Safety aspects of handrail design
Review undertaken for the revision of the Building Regulations 1985. It recommended design criteria for the ease of gripping and grasping stair handrails and for their height. The aim was to offer proposals for a satisfactory level of safety, for inclusion in the relevant Approved Documents in support of the revised Building Regulations. BR260 

The U-value of solid ground floors with edge insulation
Explains the calculation of U-values for solid ground floors incorporating insulation of the edges and gives several worked examples. IP7/93