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Home > Building elements and structures > Geotechnics, soils and foundations > Contaminated land and brownfield sites

Contaminated land and brownfield sites


Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as żbrownfieldż. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85 

Brownfield development sites
The use of previously developed land for building development offers substantial advantages in social, economic and environmental terms. This land is often described as ’brownfield’. The report is concerned with those aspects of risk management for building developments on brownfield sites that involve ground-related hazards for the built environment. The report is, of necessity, concerned with hazards and risks, but it is emphasised that an unwarranted over-sensitivity to risk will, of course, defeat the objective of locating building developments on brownfield sites. The hazards to the human population from contaminated land are not discussed; guidance for the safe development of housing on land affected by contamination can be found in the Environment Agency and NHBC (2000) report. This report outlines a systematic means of managing the range of risks to the built environment over the lifetime of the building development. Principal hazards are ground movement, vulnerability of construction materials to aggressive ground conditions, gas migration, and subterranean fires. Case histories are discussed BR447 

Brownfield sites - integrated ground engineering strategy
This report provides authoritative guidance on the investigation, treatment and foundation design for building development on brownfield and landfill sites. This integrated ground engineering strategy takes a risk based approach. Key aspects of the strategy - hazard assessment and risk mitigation - are discussed in detail. The nature of brownfield hazards is explained, and critical outlines of the numerous ground treatment and remediation techniques are given, together with information on which decisions about treatment and remediation can be based. The report is in five parts: An outline of a ground engineering strategy which includes risk management and the process by which the strategy is implemented. The 'receptors' (human beings, the natural and built environments) affected by hazards in the ground, and the nature of the hazards themselves. Investigation and evaluation of hazards in the grounds, and handling of risks. Risk mitigation measures. Ground treatment techniques. The report concludes with case histories, summaries of relevant Acts and Regulations, and official guidance. It will be especially valuable for developers, designers, contractors,Ęsite investigation specialists and regulators. BR485 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. In Part 2, the ways in which the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced, are outlined. Risk mitigation can include ground remediation techniques which are implemented before building and defensive measures which are adopted in the design of foundations, substructure and services. Regulations which can impact on the development of brownfield sites are listed in an Appendix. GG59/2 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained. Part 2 describes how the risks can be managed and, where necessary, reduced. It also indicates the regulations that can impact on the development of brownfield sites. GG59 

Building on brownfield sites
Brownfield sites can contain a variety of hazards that can pose significant risks for developers, designers, house builders, insurers and house owners. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the hazards commonly encountered on brownfield land. The significance of these hazards for housing developments and the ways in which they can be identified are explained.  GG59/1 

Construction of new buildings on gas-contaminated land
The principal components of landfill gas are methane and carbon dioxide, and so if it enters a building it can pose a risk to both health and safety. This report gives guidance on the construction of new buildings to prevent the ingress of these gases. BR212 

Contaminated land
This series of reviews covers the work carried out by BRE for the Contaminated Land and Liabilities Branch of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions and describes the effects of contaminants on building materials and containment. (Available on CD-ROM 10/98) BR346 

Contaminated land: ingress of organic vapours into buildings
Much guidance about managing the risks associated with contaminated land has been produced by DEFRA, the Environment Agency and other organisations. This Digest contains the main sources of information and gives examples of using risk assessment tools and measuring air pollutants that are applicable to evaluating and controlling risks due to the ingress of organic vapours from the ground into buildings. It describes the technical risks and financial risks that are important to any development or remediation project. DG482 

Cover systems for land regeneration
Cover systems reduce the hazard to human health from contaminated land and provide a medium for plant growth but their design has sometimes been ad hoc, resulting in designs that may be unnecessarily thick, or inadequate. This publication and the accompanying CD ROM help you assess the need for cover systems to reduce exposure to contamination, and to design the thickness of such systems. The design method is intended for simple cover systems on brownfield sites where exposure to contamination must be reduced. The guidance is not appropriate for sites where contamination is so significant that exposure must be completely prevented. Booklet (12 pages) plus CD-ROM The CD ROM includes three elements: - Powerpoint Presentation: sets the scene and introduces the study that has led to the proposed new method for cover thickness design - Report: details the findings of an in-depth study of current design approaches, literature review and on-site research. It proposes a simple method for designing cover thickness and a more rigorous spreadsheet-based method and worked example - Spreadsheet: enables combinations of cover thickness and ground contamination for a wide range of contaminants to be incorporated easily into the design. This suite of information and guidance has been prepared by RSK ENSR Ltd on behalf of the Association of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Specialists in partnership with BRE.  BR465 

Hazards associated with redevelopment of contaminated land
Describes two examples of reclamation of contaminated land, dealing with the explosion and toxic hazards associated with redevopment on these sites. IP2/87 

Modelling and measurement of soil gas flow
The work presented in this report covers several different modelling and experimental studies into the flow of gases in soil, and forms part of an investigation into how to protect buildings against soil gases. There are three parts: flow due to natural driving forces, high pressure flows, and time dependent effects. For each part, a combination of modelling techniques has been applied to the problems considered and a number of experiments analysed. The modelling techniques used vary from simple analytical models through more advanced analytical techniques to numerical solutions. Some of these develop directly from the work of others, but many are new to the soil-gas field. BR338 

Performance of building materials on contaminated land
This report presents a review of the mechanisms whereby commonly used construction materials may be attacked, corroded or otherwise degraded as a consequence of contact with aggressive chemicals and bacteria in soil. BR255 

Preloading uncompacted fills
For civil and structural engineers considering building on uncompacted fills. Describes how the load-carrying properties of uncompacted fills can be improved by a temporary preloading with a surcharge of fill. It discusses the effectiveness of preloading in different situations and outlines the principles involved in designing an adequate surcharge. IP16/86 

Regeneration of brownfield sites containing ferrous slags
Developers are increasingly using slag-bearing sites as part of the drive to locate new housing development on brownfield land. This book provides comprehensive guidance on assessment of sites containing ferrous slags derived from refining of iron ores. It aims to promote safe and cost-effective development on sites which, hitherto, would have been rejected because of concern about possible expansive reactions, ground movement and damage to buildings and structures. The first part gives guidance on assessing sites that may contain ferrous slags. It describes the origin, occurrence and characteristics of blastfurnace and steel slags that may be expansive, maps out procedures for investigating brownfield sites intended for development, and gives detailed guidance on assessment and management of ferrous slags with respect to built development. The second part compares test methods for assessing the volume stability of steel slags. The literature review in the third part covers research and test methods, site assessment methodologies and case studies. The main risk factors associated with expansive slags as well as methodologies and principles to mitigate these risks are also discussed. BR481 

The effect of a rise of water table on the settlement of open-cast mining backfill
For those considering building on restored open-cast mining sites, this paper gives brief details of settlement monitored over a 10-year period while the water table rose 34 m through the backfill, and discusses the significance of the settlement measurements for building developments. IP15/85