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Home > Building elements and structures > Geotechnics, soils and foundations > Ground investigation and treatment

Ground investigation and treatment


A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ¿brownfield¿ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ¿free fall¿ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of seven concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. The set includes an introductory guide and parts on geophysical testing, cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. AP159 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on geophysical testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and large-diameter plate loading tests. IS7 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on large-diameter plate loading tests. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing and geophysical testing. IS6 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This first guide introduces the series and summarises the main benefits. The other leaflets deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS1 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on cone penetration testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS2 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on flat dilatometer testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, dynamic probing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS3 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on pressuremeter testing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, dynamic probing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS5 

A simple guide to in-situ ground testing
The advantages of in-situ testing over traditional sampling and laboratory testing are speed, quantity and quality. This series of concise leaflets acts as a guide in decision-making when specifiying in-situ tests in order to obtain the right information. This guide focuses on dynamic probing. After an introductory guide that summarises the main benefits of in-situ testing, the other six deal with cone penetration testing, flat dilatometer testing, pressuremeter testing, large-diameter plate loading tests and geophysical testing. IS4 

An engineering guide to seismic risk to dams in the United Kingdom
This guide assesses the seriousness of seismic risk and proposes criteria for earthquake safety evaluation of existing UK dams. It relates specifically to the safety of UK dams and reservoirs under seismic loading although it should also be useful in the design of new dams. The guide is relevant to all forms of dam construction. BR210 

An engineering guide to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom
The majority of British dams are old earth embankments built many years ago without the benefits of modern earthmoving plant or our current understanding of soil behaviour. Some deterioration with time can be expected and the long term performance of these old embankment dams is of considerable significance for reservoir safety. The guide deals primarily with matters which relate to the safety of embankment dams in the United Kingdom. It includes a brief history of the development of embankment dam engineering in Britain and the geotechnical background to dam safety. It also provides information on surveillance and on the identification of defects, deterioration and inadequacies. Investigations, instrumentation, remedial works and emergency actions are described. BR363 

Application of subsurface radar as an investigative technique
Written for those concerned with the commissioning of subsurface radar surveying services, this report provides basic guidance upon potential applications and uses of the technique. This is supported by a discussion of matters which might need consideration when seeking to develop a specification for a radar survey or programme of investigation. A brief comparison with conventional atmospheric radar is made, noting some of the difficulties and influences associated with subsurface radar applications, before setting out a simplified version of the theoretical principles and the influence of material properties upon fundamental behaviour. BR340 

Building on fill: collapse compression on inundation
Compression collapse, which results from initial submersion of poorly compacted fills, is often the most serious hazard for buildings on fill. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and measuring collapse potential in fills. IP5/97 

Building on fill: geotechnical aspects
The scarcity and cost of good building land has led to increasing building development on ’brownfield’ sites. Many sites have deep deposits of waste fills; many of the fills are poorly compacted and variable, and they may be unsatisfactory as foundation materials. Redevelopment of derelict land and brownfield sites has been dominated by the hazards associated with contamination and the risks posed to human health. The physical problems have received less attention and this book will help to redress the balance. The book provides a detailed account of BRE research findings and their significance for appropriate and successful building developments on fill. It describes the history of different types of fills, the engineering behaviour of fills, construction on fills (including engineered fills), and the field performance of fills as illustrated by brief case histories.  BR424 

EuroSoilStab Design guide: soft soil stablisation
This Design Guide deals with all the aspects of the application of column and mass stabilisation: soil investigations in situ and in the laboratory; design of the mixture of binders; design of the stabilisation; construction of the stabilisation; inspection of the stabilised soil; inspection of the behaviour of the stabilisation. It provides a description of the best practice, mainly based on the experiences at seven test sites of the European project EuroSoilStab. EP60 

Investigating embankment dams
The guide gives comprehensive information on the geotechnical methods which can be employed to identify and investigate defects in embankment dams. Some of the more common repair methods are described. The guide is intended to assist all those responsible for the safety of reservoirs which are impounded by embankment dams. It is a companion volume to BR 171. BR303 

Optimising ground investigation
Ground represents the greatest hazard to any construction project. It has been widely recognised by the UK geotechnical community that the proportion of project funding spent on, and time allowed for, investigating ground hazards is generally inadequate; the quality of some ground investigation is consequently poor. This Digest informs building and construction professionals who commission ground investigations, especially clients and their advisers who do not themselves have geotechnical qualifications and experience. It aims to raise awareness of the importance of ground investigation for routine projects and provides a summary of best practice. DG472 

Pfa grouts for stabilising mine workings
Since the 1970s, many disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This Information Paper summarises new guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice that is published in a detailed BRE report (BR488). It is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. Features / Benefits Gives guidance on selecting environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques for using pfa for stabilising mine workings. Summarises authoritative guidance on good practice. Covers risk assessment, and outlines engineering aspects. Readership Pfa suppliers, civil engineers, environmental and groundwater specialists, mine owners, government and local authorities. IP10/06 

Recommendations for the procurement of ground investigation
Identifies the underlying reasons for the shortcomings which exist in the ground investigation industry in the UK and proposes means of improvement. BR94 

Simple measuring and monitoring of movement in low-rise buildings
Discusses methods of measuring and recording movement and cracking in low-rise buildings. Part 2 of a two-part Digest. DG344 

Site investigation for low-rise building: desk studies
An initial desk study forms an important part of the site investigation process to assess the suitability of a site for development. This Digest describes how to make use of various sources, and gives a number of examples of typical desk studies. DG318 

Site investigation for low-rise building: procurement
If reliable results are to be obtained, site investigation must be arranged only after careful preparation. This Digest considers the steps that should be taken and provides guidance on contractual methods. DG322 

Site investigation for low-rise building: the walk-over survey
The walk-over survey is an important part of site investigation. Used with desk studies (see Digest 318), it provides valuable information which cannot be gathered any other way. DG348 

Site investigation for low-rise buildings: direct investigations
This Digest describes the field techniques most commonly used during site investigations for low-rise buildings. As part of the process of investigating ground conditions at a site, for example in order to ensure the adequate performance of foundations, it will often be necessary to carry out this kind of work. It should be preceded by a desk study (Digest 318), and a walk-over survey (Digest 322). DG411 

Specifying dynamic compaction
The repeated dropping of a heavy weight onto the ground surface is one of the simplest and most basic methods of ground improvement. The major use of the method in the UK has been to compact loose, partially saturated soil or fill; hence ground treatment by high-energy surface impacts is commonly referred to as dynamic compaction. The ground is compacted in a predetermined pattern by repeated impacts of a large mass (hereafter referred to as a weight). The technique is generally applied to natural granular soils and partially saturated fills, where the objective is to reduce the volume of voids between constituent particles, producing an increase in density and an overall improvement in engineering properties. The weight may be dropped in ’free fall’ from a large crane or within guides. A variation of this technique is the rapid impact compactor, where a hydraulic piling hammer impacts an articulated foot that remains in contact with the ground surface. This report contains a technical specification for ground treatment using dynamic compaction by either the falling-weight or the rapid impact method. Notes for guidance and information explain and clarify the particular clauses of the specification. Appendix 1 outlines commonly adopted contractual arrangements under which dynamic compaction is carried out and suggests acceptance of levels of risk by the various parties appropriate to different types of contract BR458 

Specifying vibro stone columns
Vibro stone columns are currently the most common form of ground treatment employed in the UK. This book provides a technically prescriptive specification for vibro stone columns, including elements of design. Its use should save considerable time at tender stage, avoid misunderstandings between those specifying the works and the specialist contractors, particularly in the use of standard terminology, and provide common benchmarks for all parties to a vibro stone column contract. In Notes for Guidance and information, it presents a rationale for the particular clauses of the specification and provides supporting technical information. Using this specification should raise technical standards within a framework of fair competition for specialist contractors and provide value for money for clients.  BR391 

Stabilising mine workings with pfa grouts
Since the 1970s, hundreds of thousands of cubic metres of disused mine workings have been successfully stabilised by filling with grouts based on pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) and Portland cement to prevent surface collapse. Similar volumes of disused workings will need to be filled in coming years as pressure grows on land for development. Pfa is particularly favoured for this as it is cost-effective, technically effective and is a nationally available and abundant by-product. However, concerns have been expressed over the potential for contamination of controlled groundwaters by bleed water and leachate released from pfa grout, disruption and dust arising from the work, the effect on land and property prices, and the risk of classification of the land above the workings as contaminated. This environmental code of practice on the use of pfa grouts for filling disused underground mine workings provides guidance on the selection of environmentally compatible and cost-effective materials and techniques, with authoritative guidance on good practice. The information and guidance is based on information in the literature, laboratory studies at BRE, data from the use of pfa grouts and expertise from an industry steering group. A report on a detailed BRE laboratory study to assess the leaching characteristics, permeability and physical properties of pfa grouts is included on the accompanying CD Rom. It draws on field experience, and includes a review of groundwater risk assessment models and a specification for mine infilling works.  BR488 

Techniques for monitoring ground movement above abandoned limestone mines
Describes precision water-levels and extensometers designed and used by BRE to research long term horizontal and vertical ground movements above an abandoned limestone mine in an urban area of the West Midlands. Details are also given of the borehole electro-level. IP1/88 

The Value of Geotechnics in Construction
Involvement of geotechnical specialist throughout a project enables ground related hazards to be identified and dealt with cost-effectively. This paper gives examples where a geotechnical specialist was introduced to a project and demonstrates that the later the point at which the first involvement occurred, the greater the potential monetary loss and therefore the lower the likely end value of the development. EP49 

The use of 'vibro' ground improvement techniques in the United Kingdom
Information about the use of vibro techniques in foundations for low-rise buildings. It is based on the findings of a survey on the use of the methods in the UK carried out by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick and Partners and the Geotechnical Consulting Group. IP5/89