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Home > Building elements and structures > Geotechnics, soils and foundations > Soils and foundations

Soils and foundations


A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470 

A method of determining the state of desiccation in clay soils
The filter paper method of soil suction determination to establish the state of desiccation in clay soil profiles is increasingly used, but is not yet included in the British Standard for soil testing. This paper provides guidance for carrying out the test on disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. IP4/93 

A review of routine foundation design practice
Describes a survey of routine housing, commercial and public buildings up to four storeys in height, and light industrial buildings. The report indicates aspects of existing good practice which should be more widely adopted and problems for which improved design procedures are needed. BR104 

Analysis of sulfate-bearing soils
Deals with a selection of reliable and fast analytical methods to determine constituents of interest in soil or groundwater. IP6/79 

Anglo-Jordanian research into the properties of clays
BRE and the Jordanian Building Materials Research Centre at the Royal Scientific Society are collaborating in a study of the properties of Jordanian clays. This paper sets out the background to the co-operation, and gives details of the research which is to be carried out. IP13/80 

Assessment of damage in low-rise buildings
Discusses the assessment and clarification of visible damage resulting from structural distortion.  DG251 

Cracks caused by foundation movement
Nearly all buildings have cracks in them. There are many causes of cracking, but most of them are not associated with foundation movement: cracks are much more likely to be the result of changes induced by moisture or temperature. This Guide illustrates how to differentiate between cracks caused by foundation movement and cracks caused by other factors. GR1 

Damage to buildings caused by trees
This Guide describes how to prove if trees are the source of cracking, and how to determine the right course of action to prevent further damage. GR2 

Desiccation in clay soils
Desiccation in clay soils can result in shrinkage of the soil and subsidence of the ground; this may lead to damage to buildings. As the soil re-hydrates, it can swell, resulting in ground heave; this may also cause damage to buildings. This Digest describes the most commonly used techniques for detecting desiccation and gives guidance on how to use the results of some of these techniques to estimate heave potential. DG412 

Development of sites containing expansive ferrous slags
This paper gives guidance on the assessment and development of sites that may contain ferrous slag. It is primarily intended for engineering and geo-environmental consultants and contractors dealing with potentially expansive legacy blastfurnace and steel slags in the ground. However, it will also enable site owners, construction clients, developers, regulators, insurers and other construction professionals to appreciate the issues involved. IP8/05 

Eurocode 7 a commentary
This commentary helps the reader to understand Eurocode 7 by clarifying the text, reviewing new concepts, comparing it with existing British practice; and providing worked examples. The commentary is in five parts: fundamentals, important features of EC7-1, clause-by-clause commentary, the way ahead, and worked examples. These combine to explain the intentions of Eurocode 7, especially where this differs from previous design approaches. BR344 

Foundation movement and remedial underpinning in low-rise buildings
Based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of underpinning practice, the report gives guidance on: how to determine that a foundation problem exists and the need for underpinning; how to recognise the circumstances in which underpinning is appropriate; how to conduct a site investigation; the scope and depth of underpinning; and how to choose which type of underpinning to adopt. BR184 

Foundations for low-rise building extensions
There is a lack of guidance on foundations for low-rise building extensions, particularly for housing. Local practice, often established through rules-of-thumb, can vary, while formal procedures usually follow guidance for entire, new buildings. Owners and builders may be required to adopt extension foundation depths that differ markedly from those of the existing building, which can lead to confusion, dispute and even damage at the junction between old and new structures. This Good Building Guide suggests procedures to avoid these difficulties. GG53 

Foundations, basements and external works
It is true to say that all sites are different - perhaps that every site is unique. To perform satisfactorily the buildings built on those sites need to be different too. These differences are reflected not only in the superstructures but also in the variety of foundations developed to accommodate different ground conditions. BRE Building Elements: Foundations provides building professionals with practical details about those parts of buildings in direct contact with the ground, including foundations and basements, together with external works. The descriptions and advice given in this book concentrate on best practice and include: Wind & rainfall, wastewater, surface water drains, basements, cellars and underground buildings, public and other utilities, walls, fencing and security devices, hard and soft landscaping.  BR440 

Low-rise building foundations on soft ground
This Digest aims to be an authoritative source of general information about how best to provide foundations for low-rise buildings on soft ground. It describes how to identify and investigate soft ground, outlines the difficulties likely to be encountered and provides guidance on the foundation options available. It emphasises that specialist advice from competent professionals experienced in the engineering of soft ground is essential to the delivery of successful development of soft ground sites. DG471 

Low-rise building foundations: the influence of trees in clay soils
Soil shrinkage caused by the removal of water by trees and other vegetation can result in foundation subsidence. Soil swelling caused by the recovery of moisture following tree removal can result in foundation heave. This Digest gives simple guidance on minimising these effects in clay soils and points to some dangers in current foundation practice. It should be read in conjunction with Digests 240, 241, 251 and 412. DG298 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/3 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/1 

Low-rise buildings on fill
The scarcity and cost of suitable land are leading increasingly to the development of sites with deep deposits of fill and occasionally serious failures have occurred. This should not obscure the fact that many buildings have been successfully built on fill, but emphasise the importance of understanding the behaviour of fills, identifying potential hazards and adopting measures that will ensure successful development of these sites.  DG427/2 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes designs which should provide stable foundations in the most adverse circumstances. DG241 

Low-rise buildings on shrinkable clay soils
Describes the behaviour of clay soils and shows the general location in the UK of the more common shrinkable clays. DG240 

Principal drivers for reusing foundations
This Information Paper outlines the principal drivers for reusing foundations and discusses why developers, building owners and construction professionals should consider it. Reusing foundations is being developed in response to: ~increasing pressure on available land for re-development in inner cities, and ~finding more cost-effective and sustainable methods of construction. Changes to legislation, growth in technical understanding, recognition of the needs of the environment and sustainability are all working together to drive us to reuse foundations. The text is a short extract from 'Reuse of foundations for urban sites: a best practice handbook', published by IHS BRE Press (EP75). Features / Benefits Discusses the benefits of reusing foundations Based on recent handbook on reuse of foundations Includes a case study Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients IP5/07 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
This Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Handbook provides: a sound understanding of the background to foundation reuse and the key issues. It gives advice on how to address risk through sound engineering principles and presents technical guidance on the processes for deciding on the correct foundation options. It also provides advice on investigation, design and construction using reused foundations. Features / Benefits Provides comprehensive guidance on all aspects of reusing foundations Brings together experience of foundation reuse from the UK, Germany, France, Sweden and Greece. Provides thorough appraisal of the whole foundation construction process, including technical risks, legal and financial context and decision model. Analyses existing knowledge and latest research. Includes case studies. Fully illustrated. Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers, structural engineers, architects, developers, clients, archaeologists. EP75 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites
Redevelopment and regeneration of urban areas have left a legacy of old foundations, congested underground space and archaeological artefacts. This legacy compromises new developments and the project 'Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites' (RuFUS), partly funded by the EU, has developed and proving new processes to provide environmentally sustainable foundations for future developments. This volume presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. The papers are presented under five themes: - Decision making - Foundation assessment methods - Foundation performance - Who pays? - Getting it right. Features / Benefits Latest research into investigating and assessing existing foundations and suitability for reuse Case studies of successful projects from the UK and Europe Provides valuable background information to the companion Handbook International expertise on topic of growing importance brought together in a single volume for the first time Readership Geotechnical and foundation engineers Structural engineers Architects Developers and clients Archaeologists EP73 

Reuse of foundations for urban sites: Handbook and Proceedings
The Handbook has been developed as part of the Reuse of Foundations for Urban Sites (RuFUS) research project part-funded by the European Commission. The project draws together experience of reusing foundations across Europe and analyses existing knowledge and the latest research. The Proceedings presents papers by the RuFUS project partners and authors from Europe and further afield. It provides valuable technical information and case studies on successful resue of foundations, and extends the guidance presented in the RuFUS best practice handbook. EP76 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
Part 3 of this Good Building Guide gives advice on many matters of detail that site supervisors and groundworkers should follow wherever possible. It sets out guidance so that commonly arising faults can be recognised and avoided, and the quality of site work controlled to a good standard. The focus is on strip footings and trench-fill foundations but the guidance given is applicable to the vast majority of foundations for low-rise housing described in Part 2. GG39/3 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide set brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule-of-thumb design is appropriate, the application of the rule-of-thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/2 

Simple foundations for low-rise housing
This Good Building Guide brings together essential information on the selection of foundations for low-rise housing in the UK. It deals with the key features of a site investigation, the information needed to decide whether an engineered design is called for or whether a rule of thumb, design is appropriate, the application of the rule of thumb approach, and the key features of good site work for foundations. GG39/1 

Site investigation for low-rise building: soil description
Explains how to make an accurate description of soil, the most important part of any site investigation of the ground where a building is to be constructed. DG383 

Site investigation for low-rise building: trial pits
Shallow trial pits can provide an economic and versatile way of examining and assessing the in-situ soil conditions. This Digest gives the advantages and disadvantages of trial pits compared with boreholes. DG381 

Slurry trench cut-off walls to contain contamination
This Digest discusses materials and specification of cement bentonite mixes and geomembranes in contaminated land. DG395 

Soakaway design
Describes design and construction procedures, explains how to calculate rainfall design values and soil infiltration rates, and gives some design examples of soakaways. This widely used Digest is an invaluable guide to design of soakaways. DG365 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
Subsidence is a persistent problem in some parts of the UK: around 35,000 domestic insurance claims are made each year, costing up to 550 million, which are often complex and protracted. This book provides authoritative guidance to best practice in the technical and engineering aspects of subsidence damage to domestic buildings, and covers investigation, diagnosis, repair, prevention and mitigation of building cracking and deformation. It reviews current information and provides a baseleine of technical guidance for investigators, clearly and logically structured. The authors have drawn on BRE experience of researching subsidence problems, and on consultancy for difficult cases. Key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundation are included in pdf format in a CD-ROM accompanying the book. Features / Benefits Distils BRE expertise into concise, practical guide Includes 15 key BRE publications on soils, site investigation and foundations on CD-ROM Highly experienced authors Readership Structural engineers, building surveyors, contractors, soil investigation companies, insurance companies, loss adjustors, building owners FB13 

Subsidence damage to domestic buildings
A review of the information available on subsidence, highlighting advice when dealing with subsidence, and providing best practice in design of new buildings. The publication provides a comprehensive examination of subsidence damage to domestic buildings. It includes a detailed evaluation of the technical issues of soils, trees, climate change, foundations and buildings, guidance on dealing with damage and subsidence, socio-economic factors and insurance cover, future developments, tree risk rankings and data from BRE's subsidence database, guidelines and requirements of NHBC and BSI. The information given will ensure movements associated with shrinkage and swelling are reduced to tolerable levels. FB1 

Tilt of low-rise buildings
This Digest provides guidance on assessing the significance of tilt of low-rise buildings resulting from foundation movement. It will help building professionals, property valuers and insurance advisors to assess the significance of tilt and the need for expert advice. The issues of acceptability and tolerability of tilt are particularly acute in low-rise housing. The shortage of good building land and the consequent need to site housing developments on marginal sites gives added importance to the subject. This Digest is complementary to Digest 251 which deals with structural distortion and cracking caused by foundation movement. DG475 

Timber piles and foundations
Timber is a hugely capable civil engineering material, with the advantage of being sustainable. Trees, in particular conifers, make natural piles. Timber foundations may be particularly suitable for countryside structures such as bridges, forest chalets and activity centres, and for post and beam timber buildings in waterfront or flood-prone locations. Home grown treated softwood and hardwood timber can offer an alternative to imported tropical hardwoods. One suggested method of reducing global warming has been to bury timber to create carbon dumps: using timber for piled foundations would effectively achieve this. DG479 

Underpinning
About 80 million is spent annually in Britain on repairs to foundations following subsidence, heave and landslip. This Digest presents the background to the causes of foundation movement, and explains when and why underpinning may be necessary. DG352 

Working platforms for tracked plant
Most ground-supported working platforms perform well; they are critical for plant stability, and safety is a vital issue. However, overturning of rigs has occurred more frequently than it should. As part of a drive to improve practices related to the use of piling and associated specialist plant, the Federation of Piling Specialists instigated preparation of this guide. The guide is intended to promote safety in the design, specification, installation, operation, maintenance and repair of working platforms. A secondary objective is that safety should be achieved without unnecessary or excessive expenditure. The guide highlights important issues in site assessment, design, installation and maintenance of working platforms. Design calculations are given, together with worked examples for different subgrade properties. BR470