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Home > Environment and services > Lighting

Lighting


Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight¿ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight¿ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it¿s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE¿s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ¿hot topics¿ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02 

Assessment of emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
Offers a basis for an interim method for assessment of wayfinding systems for visual effectiveness in smoke. IP10/97 

Availability of daylight
Comprehensive data to help designers to estimate more accurately the necessary and likely hours of use of artificial lighting in buildings. BR21 

Availability of sunshine
Describes the use of the sunlight availability protractor and discusses its applicability. Gives tables of sunrise, sunset and maximum possible duration of sunshine for London. Analyses average measured sunshine data for London and Edinburgh.  AP155 

Average daylighting factor: a simple basis for daylight design
Good design of windows should include planning for daylight at the early design stage. This paper describes formulae developed at BRE for calculating average daylight factor quickly and accurately. It will be especially useful in determining target glazing areas. IP15/88 

Calculating access to skylight sunlight and solar radiation on obstructed urban sites in Europe
Conventional solar prediction techniques tend to assume an unobstructed site, but nearly all urban and suburban sites are obstructed to some degree. This report contains manual tools to find, for almost all of Europe, how much skylight, sunlight and solar gain reach the outside of an obstructed window or a point in a building layout. Complex as well as simple obstruction profiles can be modelled. The tools comprise: a skylight indicator, sunlight availability indicators, sunpath indicators, and solar gain indicators. BR379 

Control of solar shading
A wide range of motorised shading systems is available. The way these systems are controlled can have an important impact on building energy efficiency and on occupant comfort. This paper gives guidance on whether to use automatic or manual control or a mixture of the two, and describes control strategies and ways to implement them. It will be of interest to building designers and services engineers, and shading manufacturers and installers. IP12/02 

Daylight in atrium buildings
Daylight is an essential component of a visually attractive and energy efficient atrium building. Good control of electric lighting is vital for energy efficiency. Areas surrounding the atrium can suffer from poor penetration of natural light unless care is taken in design. Solar shading also needs to be considered. This paper explains the issues involved and gives guidance. It should be of interest to architects, engineers and their clients.  IP3/98 

Daylight protractor No 2
Protractor for an overcast sky and vertical glazing only. For the full set, see package AP68. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used. AP69 

Daylight protractors
Protractor set (2nd series), numbers 1 to 10 plus a guide. The full set of protractors covers rooflight and side windows, and both overcast and uniform skies. The protractors calculate the sky component of daylight factor. In conjunction with BRE Digests 309 and 310, they can be used to find the daylight factor at a point indoors. For assessing the loss of light to an existing building following construction of a development next door, BR209 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight’ should be used.  AP68 

Daylighting as a passive solar energy option
The exploitation of daylight is internationally recognised as a valuable means of improving energy efficiency. This report examines the opportunities for exploiting daylight in non-domestic buildings and assesses the factors which will determine its success. BR129 

Daylighting design for display screen equipment
This paper describes practical techniques to realise the benefits of daylight in interiors with display-screen equipment. It deals with potential problems of screen reflections and glare that can arise in daylit spaces. It will be of interest to all those involved in the design, maintenance and refurbishment of buildings where display-screen equipment is used. IP10/95 

Daylighting requirements for display-screen equipment
Discusses the problems posed by the daylighting of workstations with display-screen equipment, and provides general guidance on how these problems can be addressed during design or refurbishment. IP14/93 

Designing buildings for daylight
This guide reviews the art and science of designing for daylight. It includes extensively illustrated examples of where daylight has been successfully used in a variety of building types, clear explanations of the key elements of daylight design, and worked examples and practical exercises that bring together the principles involved in designing buildings for daylight. BR288 

Designing with innovative daylighting
Up to 40% of the energy needed to light a building can usually be saved when good use is made of daylighting. With such savings in mind, building designers have started using innovative daylighting systems. These work by redirecting incoming natural light to where it is needed, for instance to the rear of deep rooms, whilst reducing glare and discomfort for occupants. This book evaluates more than 30 such innovative systems. BR305 

Developments in innovative lighting
Innovative daylighting systems work by redirecting incoming sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. 'Designing with innovative daylighting' (BR305) gives detailed design information, including a review of the systems available or under development in 1996. This Paper updates that information with details of new developments. It covers new system types, case study buildings, and research findings on energy related issues. IP9/00 

Dwellings and energy efficent lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales contains requirements on energy efficient lighting. An Approved Document gives examples of ways to meet the requirements. In the 2002 edition, these requirements have been extended to cover internal and external lighting in dwellings. This paper describes the scope of the requirements, and explains the guidance in the Approved Document. IP5/02 

Emergency lighting and wayfinding systems for visually impaired people
Summarises the findings of studies on the use of emergency lighting and wayfinding systems by visually impaired people and offers interim design guidance for escape routes. IP9/97 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems
Guidance on the use of emergency wayfinding lighting systems as an alternative or supplement to traditional lighting of emergency escape routes. IP1/93 

Emergency wayfinding lighting systems in smoke
A summary of the interim findings of studies on the visibility of emergency lighting systems in smoke. This paper should be of interest to those concerned with the design of escape routes. IP17/94 

Energy efficient lighting
Part L of the Building Regulations for England and Wales, deals with the conservation of fuel and power and includes requirements for energy efficient lighting. In the new edition, due to come into force in 2002, these requirements have been revised and extended. The new edition includes significant changes with major implications for lighting work in new and existing buildings. New measure include: - energy efficiency requirements for internal and external lighting in new dwellings - replacement of over 100 sq m of lighting in existing non-domestic buildings becoming a controlled service under the Building Regulations - efficiency of luminaires in offices and industrial buildings - energy efficient display lighting New from BRE, Energy efficient lighting provides additional clarification of Part L and it’s revisions - helping you to fully understand the requirements and ways in which to demonstrate compliance. There are two Approved Documents (L1 and L2), one for dwellings, the other for non-domestic buildings - this publication provides an illustrated and detailed evaluation of both. BR430 

Estimating daylight in buildings
These two Digests present daylight prediction methods that can be used as a first stage in assessing the visual and energy impacts of window design and the effectiveness of daylight-linked lighting controls (see Digest 272). Part 1 covers the calculation of sky component and externally-reflected component; Part 2 deals with the internally-reflected component and corrections (for glazing, maintenance, etc) to the total daylight factor, and the calculation of average daylight factor. DG309 

Hospitals in the best light
Hospitals are complex buildings for a lighting designer; a wide range of issues must be considered, many concerning financial and process-related issues. It is essential that the lighting designer is included early in the decision process. The designer should consider functional aspects of the lighting, appearance, the economics of energy efficiency, maintenance and costs. If considered in a holistic way, the lit environment is likely to be a success. Examples of lighting requirements that need to be considered are for entrance areas and circulation spaces, wards and nurses' stations, laboratories, storerooms and offices. IP14/00 

Impact of horizontal shading devices on peak solar gains through windows
Horizontal shading devices such as overhangs, brise soleils, louvres and light shelves are often very effective in reducing peak summertime solar gains. This Information Paper quantifies the effects of these devices. It gives data that can be used as correction factors for the method shown in Appendix H of Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) of the Building Regulations, as a way to meet the requirement to limit solar overheating in buildings other than dwellings. IP17/03 

Innovative daylighting systems
Maximising the benefits of natural light in buildings can produce better working and living conditions, and save on energy. This paper describes situations and systems for using daylight - mirrors, prismatic glazing, light shelves and light pipes; it also provides a checklist for design. IP22/89 

Interior lighting calculations: a guide to computer programs
There are many computer programs that perform lighting calculations. They vary enormously in speed, sophistication and cost. Occasionally, surveys are published which compare programs in terms of their features. While these can be of direct benefit to purchasers, they tend to go out of date quickly, as new programs and new versions of old programs are released. This guide, therefore, does not focus on individual programs but on the issues which are common to all programs, and in particular the algorithms that underly them. Guidance is given on the features that are common to each type of program and on some of the extra features that may be useful to designers. This guide helps lighting designers to select appropriate interior lighting calculation software. IP16/98 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. Part 1 general principles, Part 2 domestic and exterior, Part 3 non-domestic GG61 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 3 of this Good Building Guide describes how to fulfill the lighting requirements of Part L2 in non-domestic buildings and how to follow good practice in energy efficient lighting for specific applications. GG61/3 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 2 of this Good Building Guide describes an internal domestic lighting scheme, exterior lighting and maintenance of luminaires and lamps, and provides a lighting design aide-memoire. GG61/2 

Lighting
Lighting is of critical importance in all types of buildings. An adequate level and distribution of light is vital if visual tasks are to be carried out safely and effectively. Good lighting will also improve the internal environment and appearance of a building. The use of efficient lamps, ballasts and luminaires, with appropriate lighting controls, can provide the right visual environment, be energy efficient and cost effective. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the general principles and gives an introduction to what is available. GG61/1 

Lighting controls: an essential element of energy-efficient lighting
This paper illustrates the robustness of the control strategies previously given in BRE Digest 272 by reference to practical experience gained in projects sponsored by DoE as part of the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. IP5/87 

Lighting uniformity: subjective studies
Three studies of people's responses to electric lighting in a simulated office have proved valuable both in the current revision of the professional code for interior lighting in the UK and for draft European standards. This paper discusses the three studies, and gives guidance on acceptable illuminance variation from electric lighting in an office environment. IP15/93 

Measuring daylight
People like daylight in buildings, and daylight can make a building more energy-efficient. This paper draws on measurements made at BRE to illustrate the changing nature of light from the sky. It gives advice on how to measure daylight under the real sky or an artificial sky. IP23/93 

New ways of predicting discomfort glare
When a range of luminances is too great, people may experience discomfort glare with possible adverse implications. This paper summarises the three major international models used to calculate discomfort glare, and reports on the development of a single, unified glare rating system based on them. IP24/93 

Non-uniform lighting: the prediction of illuminance distributions
Illuminance is the primary lighting design parameter and the prediction of illuminance distributions in a space is important, particularly for non-uniform lighting. This paper reviews the accuracy which can be achieved using currently available software together with manufacturers' published lamp and luminaire data. IP14/90 

Office lighting
Lighting in offices is more important now than ever before. Good lighting can result in important gains in productivity, reduced running costs, and improved corporate image. At the same time the lighting of offices is an increasingly complicated task. Much office lighting is installed and maintained by non-lighting specialists and the aim of this design guide has been to provide an introduction to the key lighting concepts, with simple, practical guidance on lighting provision. However, this guide also seeks to summarise recent research findings, including key results from BRE’s own work. These key results cover issues like daylight provision, setting up lighting controls, user requirements for illuminance, and energy efficiency. In addition, the report relays the findings of research elsewhere on ’hot topics’ like polarised and full spectrum lighting. BR415 

People and lighting controls
Aimed at designers, manufacturers, installers and occupiers, this paper considers the purposes of lighting controls and how to match them to the needs of occupants. IP6/96 

Photoelectric control of lighting
This paper gives the latest research information on the design and commissioning of automatic, daylight-linked lighting controls. Both switching and dimming controls are considered. It will be of interest to controls manufacturers, lighting designers and engineers, and facilities managers. IP2/99 

Retrofitting solar shading
Solar shading can have an important benefit on the environment in buildings and can give valuable savings in cooling energy. This paper describes the shading systems commonly used in retrofit and gives guidance on their selection and design. It will be of interest to building owners and facilities managers, energy auditors and interior designers. IP11/02 

Selecting lighting controls
Lighting controls can give important energy savings and their reasonable provision is required by Building Regulations whenever lighting work is carried out in buildings that are not dwellings. When lighting controls are chosen it is important to take into account the type of space, how it is used and the amount of daylight available. This Digest explains how to do this and describes the common types of control and how to calculate energy savings. It will be of interest to building owners, desingers, building services contractors and building control bodies. DG498 

Site layout for sunlight and solar gain
Gives guidance on planning to achieve good access to sunlight and solar heat, both for buildings and the open spaces between them. IP4/92 

Site layout planning for daylight
Outlines new BRE guidance on site layout planning to achieve good daylighting, both in buildings and in the open spaces between them. IP5/92 

Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight
This important and widely used guide complements BS 8206: Part 2 and CIBSE Applications manual on window design by providing advice on the planning of the external environment. It covers: rights to light and indicators to calculate access to skylight, sunlight and solar radiation; how to protect the daylighting and sunlighting of existing buildings when new developments are proposed; and gives guidance on passive solar site layout, the sunlighting of gardens and amenity areas, and more. BR209 

Solar dazzle reflected from sloping glazed facades
This paper presents a method which can be used at the design stage to calculate whether solar dazzle will result from a proposed building facade. IP3/87 

Solar shading of buildings
Windows are an essential feature of nearly every type of building. People like being able to see out and to have access to daylight and fresh air. Even sunlight is often welcome. In winter, the window can act as a passive solar collector, helping to heat up the building. Windows have their adverse effects too, but these can mostly be avoided by providing a suitable shading device - the subject of this report. There are three main reasons why shading might be needed: to reduce overheating, to reduce glare from windows, and to provide privacy. Various types of shading devices and special types of glazing are discussed and their comparative performance is summarised in a table. BR364 

Summertime solar performance of windows with shading devices
This report provides data that can be used to quantify the ability of windows and shading devices to control summertime overheating. It covers different types of glazing: external shading including overhangs and fins, screens and louvres, internal and mid-pane blinds, and combinations of the above. The data allow the designer to compare the effectiveness of different forms of shading devices, and can be used as input to simple calculation methods. A calculation tool is included on a CD-ROM that enables the effective summertime solar transmittance of windows with shading devices to be calculated, together with data on radiation. FB9 

Sun-on-ground indicators
Set of 12 transparent indicators for use with 'Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight', BR 209. AP60 

The Waldram Diagram
Diagram for CIE overcast sky and vertically glazed apertures. BR85 

Whole life performance of domestic automatic door controls
Automatic door controls improve access for disabled and elderly people and generally work well. Their high initial cost is the main input to the whole life costs. Maintenance costs are necessary to maintain performance. Each installation needs to be considered on its merits. Controls may be installed so they are part of the permanent fixtures and the cost and performance can be viewed over the whole life of the building, or at least in its current use. More commonly, controls are fitted in existing housing to meet the needs of an individual for a limited time.  IP2/02