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Home > Materials > Mortar, render and plaster

Mortar, render and plaster


Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client ¿ if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can¿t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85 

Assessing external rendering for replacement or repair
Gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. With GG24, this guide gives advice on the systematic inspection of failed underlying structures, and guidance on whether to repair or replace. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors. GG23 

Avoiding latent mortar defects in masonry
Mortar defects in masonry fall into two categories: those that are visually obvious at the time of construction, and the latent and built-in defects that make their presence felt only later. This paper suggests various means of reducing latent defects so as to avoid problems if the masonry is subjected to unduly onerous conditions. IP10/93 

BREMORTEST: a rapid method of testing fresh mortars for cement content
This paper describes a test for the cement content of uncarbonated cement:sand mortar mixes (and, less accurately, for cement: lime: sand mixes). The test employs relatively simple apparatus - not yet developed beyond a prototype - and procedures which can be used on site with mortars up to seven days old. IP8/89 

Building masonry with lime-based mortars
Lime mortar is enjoying a revival and is being promoted by conservation organisations for restoration work and by environmentalists as an environmentally friendly material. It can be used for new build as well as for restoration and conservation work. This Good Building Guide gives guidance on the properties of lime mortars, mortar mix design and working with lime mortars. However, practice varies within the British Isles and the reader is advised to make sure that proposed works comply with local specifications, especially for heritage buildings. Some helpful further reading is given. GG66 

Building mortar
Recommends the composition and use of a general purpose mortar and other specialised types of mortars, including those for resisting sulfate attack, in the light of changes to British Standards and impending changes from British to European standards. The increasing use of ready-mixed mortars is recognised. Describes sulfate and frost attack on mortar, their cause and effect, diagnosis and remedial measures. DG362 

Choosing external rendering
This guide gives outline advice for buildings up to four storeys to assist specifiers and builders in choosing render for different backgrounds and exposure. GG18 

Mortars for blockwork: Improved thermal performance.
The introduction of more stringent thermal buildings regulations may increase the use of lightweight and thin layer mortar which reduce the thermal transmittance of walling (blockwork). Little experimental information is available, so data have been collected both from relevant literature and from testing mortar samples and blockwork wallettes. The use of lightweight and thin layer mortars seems unlikely to have a significantly adverse effect on the strength of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry, except that the flexural strength of lightweight blockwork is likely to be lower than that of traditional masonry.  IP2/98 

Plasterboard
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits - Best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice - Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives - Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for satisfactory performance. - Summarises the available range of plasterboards and systems and their applications. - Guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. - Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70 

Plasterboard Part 1
To achieve satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. Part 1 of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. It is equally imprtant that the appropriate fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board are employed on site. Parts 2 and 3 will provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing from BRE observations of site practices. Checklists will be included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Provides a concise summary of the range of plasterboards and plasterboard systems available and their applications. Gives guidance on how plasterboards meet the requirements of recent changes in the Approved Documents E and L of the Building Regulations. Discusses plasterboard applications in the Robust Details construction scheme. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/1 

Plasterboard Part 2
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers GG70/2 

Plasterboard Part 3
For satisfactory performance of a completed construction, it is crucial that the correct type, thickness or mass of plasterboard is selected. The first part of this Good Building Guide describes the range of boards available and when they can be used. The right fixing and finishing techniques for each type of board must also be used and the second and third parts provide practical guidance for operatives on fixing and finishing plasterboard, drawing on BRE observations of site practices. Checklists are included for use at both design and site stages. Features / Benefits Gives best practice guidance based on BRE observations of site practice Includes checklists for use by designers and operatives Emphasises the importance of selecting the correct board for the job to achieve satisfactory performance of the completed construction. Readership Building contractors, fit out specialists, architects and specifiers.  GG70/3 

Plastering and internal rendering
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65 

Plastering and internal rendering: Design and specification
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available, the selection of suitable plastering specifications, whether for skim coat, two-coat or three-coat work in relation to the substrate material of wall or ceiling, the protection of abutments, avoidance of potential loss of adhesion, and thermal and moisture movements of the most common backgrounds and plasters. Workmanship, including permissible deviations of the finished surfaces, is dealt with in Part 2. GG65/1 

Plastering and internal rendering: Workmanship
The acceptability of the wall and ceiling plastered finish can be a significant item in the snagging procedure. Selection of appropriate materials and techniques may not always be thorough, particularly with respect to shrinkage of backing coats and resultant cracking, and detachment of surfaces. Rigorous design procedures and quality control on site are therefore of major importance in reducing, if not eliminating, defects. This Good Building Guide addresses these issues, drawing primarily from the experience of BRE site investigations. Part 1 describes the commonest types of gypsum and cement-based plasters available and the selection of suitable plastering specifications. Part 2 covers good practice, dealing with storage and handling of materials, protection of surrounding construction, preparation of surfaces, control of suction, dubbing out, bonding agents, permissible deviations, check lists and restoration of defective work. GG65/2 

Proprietary renders
Proprietary render products offer benefits such as less waste, opportunities for machine application and fewer workmanship errors. Despite extensive use in continental Europe and their benefits on projects, use remains limited partly due to a lack of independent data on performance. This paper provides the results of laboratory tests on four products. Bond strength, resistance to water penetration and freeze/thaw durability were superior to traditional render; however, they showed reduced water vapour permeability.  IP16/03 

Repairing external rendering
This guide gives advice on the possible causes of failed rendering and suggests remedial action to take. Aimed at building surveyors, contractors and site supervisors.  GG24 

Replacing failed plaster
Shows how to select wet plaster for different background materials and describes how it may contribute towards the fire, thermal and acoustic properties of the structure. GG7 

Replacing plasterwork
Replacement of old or damaged internal plasterwork is expensive. It can be more complicated than new work because the plaster often has to be applied to a mix of backgrounds which may be damaged or contaminated. It is one of the few parts of a job where the quality is obvious to the client – if the plasterwork is poor, he is likely to question the workmanship of the parts he can’t see. This Good Repair Guide gives guidance on common reasons for failure in plasterwork, how to prepare different background surfaces for wet replastering, and how to select a suitable plaster system. GR18 

The conformance of masonry mortars and their constituent sands with British Standards
Describes how ready-to-use mortars were found to have better strength and working properties than site-mixed mortars, but a disapppointing lack of conformance with British Standards. IP10/85