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Home > Materials > Paints, adhesives and sealants

Paints, adhesives and sealants


Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94 

Ageing of wood adhesives - loss in strength with time
Joints made with most common wood adhesives tend to lose strength as they age. This paper gives the results of long-term tests carried out at BRE which quantify these strength reductions over a period of 40 years for unstressed material and 27 years for stressed joints. Implications for glued structures are considered. IP8/84 

Choosing wood adhesives
Most wood adhesives are based on the resins of urea, melamine, phenol or resorcinol, or polyvinyl acetate emulsions. This Digest provides advice on the selection and specification of adhesives for use with solid woods. DG340 

Controlling mould growth by using fungicidal paints
Fungicidal paints can prove effective as part of the overall strategy for preventing mould growth caused by dampness in dwellings. This paper provides information on the methods BRE have developed to assess these products, and gives recommendations for cleaning and redecoration procedures. IP12/95 

EN 927: the new European Standard for exterior wood coatings
New European standards for exterior wood coatings are available in five parts: guide to selection and classification, specification for assessing the performance of wood coating systems in relation to end use, and test methods for natural weathering and water absorption. This Digest, which will interest buildings users and specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, describes these standards. DG466 

Exterior wood stains
Summarises the properties and performance characteristics of exterior wood stains - an important class of natural finishes for timber. Also describes the main types of exterior wood stains and offers advice on end-use application. IP5/91 

Exterior wood stains
Information is readily available on the characteristics and uses of exterior wood stains. This paper presents the current opinion on their performance and limitations, based on continuing research and considerable site expertise. IP34/79 

Factory-applied priming paints for exterior joinery
The results of tests carried out to establish the performance of currently available factory applied primers and advice on their specification and use in joinery manufacture. IP17/87 

Interior painting of trim with solvent-borne paints
This paper describes the results of research into solvent vapour concentrations generated during the painting of small surface areas, typical of interior trim. IP8/95 

Internal painting: tips and hints
Internal decoration is generally straightforward and less likely to cause problems than outside painting. Modern paints offer a wide choice of finishes and the techniques needed to get a good finish are well known. But there can be snags: for instantce, painting on damp or unsound plaster or dealing with persistent mould growth on walls. Sometimes there are health hazards in removing old finishes or applying solvent-based paints indoors. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to tackle problems that crop up during internal painting, where to use fungicidal paints, and when to take safety precautions. GR19 

Joint primers and sealants: performance between porous claddings
Recent experience indicates that high performance building sealants may fail prematurely when used between very porous cladding materials like grc. This Information Paper informs building professionals and sealant manufacturers of the important role of the primer in preventing early failure and identifies resistance to water permeation as a key property for primers used in sealant joints. IP9/87 

Joint sealants and primers: further studies of performance with porous surfaces
A report of studies on the effect of polyvinylidene chloride on a range of sealants in wet conditions and the potential for improving the performance of sealants by adding other compounds to the primer. IP4/90 

Lead driers in paint: implications of their removal
Summarises the results of an investigation carried out on behalf of the Central Directorate of Environmental Protection. It demonstrates that lead driers can be reduced from accepted levels in paints without serious disadvantage and that new paints, with alternative driers, can be formulated without a reduction in performance. IP12/85 

Low-solvent primers: performance in construction steelwork
This Paper summarises a BRE project drawing on experience from industry, to provide guidance on selection, application and performance of low solvent content pre- and post-fabrication primers applied as temporary protection to structural steelwork. It is one of four addressing the issues of low-VOC coatings on a range of construction substrates. IP16/00 

Maintaining exterior wood finishes
This Good Building Guide advises on which type of finish to use for exterior doors and windows, discusses the pros and cons of finish types and how they compare in practice, advises on successful maintenance methods, and gives guidance on the method and extent of surface preparation necessary. GG22 

Maintaining paintwork on exterior timber
Exposure trials show the difficulty in achieving good performance from paints applied as maintenance coats on cleaned-up, weathered surfaces. Durability of maintenance coats not only varied markedly between different paints but in some cases was also affected by the type of clean-up method used. IP16/87 

Painting exterior wood
Explains the principles underlying the successful painting of exterior wood, with details of paint systems and of the initial and maintenance painting process. DG422 

Painting plastics
Applying the wrong sort of paint can change the nature of a plastic component and shorten its life. This paper advises on the best way to prepare plastics for painting and discusses which paints should be used. IP11/79 

Planned maintenance painting: improving value for money
Planned maintenance painting activities account for one of the largest proportions of a housing stock owner's budget. To make progress towards value for money goals, without compromising customer satisfaction, consideration needs to be given to partnering efficiently with contractors and coatings manufacturers. This Information Paper presents findings from a project funded by DTI and supported by industry. It explains some of the opportunities available for adopting best practice and for getting started in partnering initiatives. IP7/03 

Polymeric anti-corrosion coatings for protection of materials in contaminated land
Building on former industrial land (contaminated land) may necessitate the use of materials in aggressive ground conditions so some consideration must be given to their protection from chemical attack. This report reviews the coating process necessary to protect materials from chemical attack and discusses the essential properties required of anti-corrosion coatings. BR286 

Progress in European standardisation for exterior wood coatings
Of interest to specifiers, architects and paint manufacturers, this paper describes developments in European Standards for exterior wood coatings. This group of standards forms part of the range of construction-related European Standards intended to reduce technical barriers to trade and support the formation of the single European market. IP5/96 

Refixing ceramic wall tiles to internal walls
The differential thermal and moisture movements associated with the background substrate and tiles can disrupt or break an inadequate bond within the tiling system. Effective adhesion of tiling requires: good adhesion of tiles to the substrate, a suitable adhesive for the substrate and conditions, dry, sound backing and substrate, and provision for movement joints in large areas of tiling. This Good Repair Guide gives advice on how to prepare the background surface, apply the adhesive, build in movement joints and apply the grouting. GR29 

Resistance of masonry paints to microbial attack
Describes the range of organisms involved, the conditions required for growth and the influence of substrate and paint film on the rate of colonisation. IP10/98 

Selecting building sealants with ISO 11600
This paper describes how ISO 11600 classifies sealants and how the classification scheme relates to use in service and to British Standard methods for joint design (BS 6093) and sealant selection (BS 6213). Changes that are likely to be introduced in the revised version of ISO 11600 are included. DG463 

Selecting gaskets for construction joints
This Digest advises on selecting gaskets for fixed joints in the external envelope of buildings. Gaskets are the main alternative to sealants for sealing joints in construction. BS 6093, the code of practice for the design of joints and jointing in buildings, gives authoritative guidance on the design of joints. However, while there are supporting standards for sealants, for gaskets there is only a materials specification of limited scope. Gasketted joints can provide effective weathersealing, but this requires appropriately designed joints and gaskets coupled with the use of suitable gasket materials. DG469 

Site-applied adhesives - failures and how to avoid them
Describes the nature of the failures discovered (by BRE Advisory Service) and gives designers, specifiers and site supervisors general advice on how to avoid them. IP12/86 

Solar reflective paints
Provides guidance on the merits of using solar reflective paints and other solar reflective treatments. IP26/81 

Solvent vapour hazards during painting with white-spirit-borne eggshell paints
Describes the problem of solvent emission, and the effects of ventilation, surface area and temperature on solvent vapour levels. IP3/92 

The performance and use of coatings with low solvent content
Coatings of low solvent content are being increasingly used in areas where, traditionally, coatings with relatively high levels of organic solvent would have been used. These new formulations are becoming more widely available and will undoubtedly be the predominant coatings in the future. This Paper summarises the pressures driving the changes in coatings technology and, based on data from BRE projects, describes the properties and performance of these new materials. It presents this complex technology in a readily understood from that will be of interest to all users of coatings for construction applications, including architects, specifiers, painting contractors and householders. IP8/99 

The selection and performance of sealants
Summarises the principal criteria for the selection of sealants, relating these to a general design procedure for building joints. IP25/81 

Water-borne coatings for exterior wood
Water-borne coatings for exterior wood are appropriate for most applications where exterior woodwork requires protection and decoration, but their properties and performance in use differ in many respects from those of traditional solvent-borne products. Describes the main types of water-borne coatings and summarises the requirements for their successful use. IP4/94