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Home > Fire and security > Performance in fire

Performance in fire


Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88 

Assessing the life hazard from burning sandwich panels
The Fire Research Station has developed a method of quantifying the extent of risk from lightweight sandwich panels and hence of providing a basis for improving the design of such components. This method is described here. IP18/87 

BR135: Annex B
This Digest presents a new classification system for fire performance of cladding on multi-storey buildings. It extends the coverage in Annex A of BRE Report BR135 to cover cladding systems supported by a structural steel frame, in line with BS 8414-2:2002. Illustrated with detailed schematics and graphs to show a typical test facility and the location of thermocouples, it provides a concise outline of the test methodology and performance criteria for assessing the systems which use framed structures. Features / Benefits Provides performance criteria for fire performance in line with new British Standard Essential for specialists in cladding for high-rise buildings Extends the guidance in BRE Report BR135 Readership Fire engineers, structural engineers, cladding manufacturers, certification authorities, test consultants DG501 

Dust explosions
Explosions involving seemingly innocuous dust can seriously damage buildings. Industries at risk need to assess the explosibility of the dust they handle and incorporate appropriate levels of explosion protection. This Digest identifies the hazards and considers methods of explosion protection. DG288 

Dust explosions flame and pressure effects outside vents
Explosion relief venting is a common form of explosion protection. As well as the pressure developed inside a vented vessel, a vented explosion generates secondary effects, due to blast and fire, outside the vented vessel. These effects need to be considered so appropriate protection can be provided for people or nearby installations and buildings. This report provides practical guidance on the external effects of vented dust explosions and is based on the results of explosion studies undertaken across Europe. FN7 

Effect of polypropylene fibres on performance in fire of high grade concrete
The use of high grade concrete in buildings can reduce the size of structural elements, but there is concern about its susceptibility to spalling in fire. Based on fire tests of columns, this report gives information and recommendations on the use of polypropylene fibres to improve the performance of high grade concrete in fire. BR395 

Fire behaviour of breather membranes
FRS has examined the fire behaviour of three types of breather membrane for use in timber-framed houses to find out if a serious fire could result from their ignition. The author establishes implications from the results of the research. IP6/87 

Fire grading of buildings
Together with BR237, this Report is still pertinent in many respects and underpins much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR236 

Fire grading of buildings
These publications are still pertinent in many respects and underpin much of the current thinking on fire safety regulations. They are of considerable interest to fire and building professionals. Originally produced by a Joint Committee of the Building Research Board of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and of the Fire Offices' Committee. Facsimile reprint 1992. BR237 

Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings
Provides information on the design and application of external thermal insulation used in external cladding systems for multi-storey buildings. This revised edition updates and builds upon the previous advice by providing a method of assessing the fire performance of such cladding systems from full-scale fire test data and offering design principles that reflect the changes in the type of products and systems now in use. BR135 

Fire performance of loft insulating materials
Outlines fire behaviour and required performance of various loft insulating materials. IP25/80 

Fire risks from combustible cavity insulation
Reviews tests by FRS on masonry walls filled with combustible insulation materials, describes the performance of different insulating materials, and offers a guide to selection. DG294 

Fire safety of PTFE-based materials used in building
This report gives guidance on fire safety aspects of the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and similar fluoropolymers in buildings, particularly for roofing. The guidance is based primarily on results of a research project to establish the potential hazards to fire fighters and the public from fires involving structures containing PTFE-based materials. BR274 

Fire spread between caravans
Describes work carried out to examine the spacing difference between park homes (mobile homes) and holiday caravans. Ignitability tests were conducted on samples of caravan material and two complete caravans were fire tested. Construction materials, combustible items kept near the caravans and fire screens were factors considered. IP15/91 

Fire spread in buildings
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Research Station (FRS), this paper highlights the manner in which fire and flame spread occurred, makes suggestions on how the problems could have been avoided and makes reference to guidance which more fully describes the problems or their avoidance. IP21/84 

Important factors in real fires
Summarises the more commonly recurring and significant aspects of actual fires and serves as a prelude to a series of Information Papers in which specific items are discussed in detail. IP20/84 

Incidence and nature of fires in traditional and framed housing
Summarises the current research findings on dwelling fires borne out by field experience and related to a statistical base. Places hazards in their true context for the information of those concerned with the design, construction and management of buildings. IP9/85 

Increasing the fire resistance of existing timber doors
Discusses the problems associated with the upgrading of timber doors to half-hour standard of fire resistance. IP8/82 

New fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs
BRE has carried out research on a new fire design method to assess steel-framed structures without passive fire protection. The results were disseminated at 16 workshops during 2000 and 2001. This publication presents the report which was given to delegates explaining the new fire design method for steel frames with composite floor slabs. BRE Digest 462 'Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire' is based on the work described here. FB5 

Performance of high grade concrete containing polypropylene fibres for fire resistance
This study into the effect of polypropylene fibres on concrete strength accompanies research into the enhancement of fire resistance of high grade concrete from polypropylene fibres. Adding polypropylene fibres to concrete reduces its compressive strength, due to the reduction in density. It may directly affect the design of structural elements.There is no significant loss of flexural strength nor cylinder splitting strength from the fibres. (CD ROM 16/00) BR384 

Precast Hollowcore slabs in fire
Following concerns about the performance of hollow core slabs in fire, two full-scale fire tests were carried out at BRE's Large Building Test Facility at Cardington. The objectives were to assess the adequacy of this form of construction in terms of the functional requirements of Approved Document B of the Building Regulations. This paper explains the background to the work, describes the test parameters in detail and summarises the test results and conclusions. IP5/03 

Reaction to fire of construction products
This sets a framework for a classification system for reaction to fire, based on characteristic material parameters. Proposed reference situations are reviewed and related to hazards. Subsequently the major fire phenomena are identified, and their relevance for each fire scenario discussed. A review of large-scale test data is given for each scenario. ISO and national test methods used in the EU are discussed and assessed. The study recommends research to develop a classification scheme for the reaction to fire behaviour of construction products subjected to different fire scenarios. EP37 

Roofs as barriers to fire
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of: possible ignition and extensive flame spread over the external surface caused by heat radiated by a fire in an adjacent building, and the need to prevent a fire inside a building spreading to a nearby building or an upper part of the same building. IP2/80 

Selection of sprinklers for high-rack storage in warehouses
This paper considers the likely benefits of a fast-response solder-link sprinkler head in in-rack sprinkler systems and its ability to provide protection against fires in high-rack storage. IP5/88 

Smoke shafts protecting fire-fighting shafts
This report presents the findings of research carried out on natural smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts to develop practical information on the design of smoke ventilation of fire-fighting shafts. It provides information that significantly improves and clarifies aspects of the current guidance and may bring a more flexible innovative approach to the design of large footprint and/or tall buildings. AP154 

Smoke spread within a building
Based on fire studies conducted by the Fire Investigation Section at the Fire Research Station, this paper is concerned with the spread of smoke to areas beyond the source, its implications for life safety and, to a lesser extent, property damage. IP22/84 

Spillage of flue gases from open-flued combustion appliances
Spillage of burnt gases into a room can be hazardous as some of them are toxic and combustion appliances are generally installed in habitable rooms. This paper explains the cause of spillage and gives advice on how to ensure that open-flued appliances will not give rise to spillage. IP21/92 

The effect of a roof on a fire within a building
Discusses how roofs may be required to satisfy various needs with regard to structural fire precautions which may arise because of the possible effects of the roof on the fire spread within the building. IP3/80 

Thermal bowing in fire and how it affects building design
During a fire, heat can affect one side of a wall or floor leading to differential thermal expansion and bowing. Data from experimental and theoretical work can be used in the design of buildings to reduce the detrimental effect of thermal bowing in, for example, tall walls. IP21/88