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Home > Environment and services > Radon and gas emissions

Radon and gas emissions


A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: ¿clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. ¿additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. ¿new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03 

A questionnaire for studies of sick building syndrome
This report describes the development of a standard questionnaire for use in investigating sick building syndrome (SBS) in specific cases and in research projects. The questionnaire itself is packaged with the report. BR287 

Buildings and radon
Divided into four sections, this highly-illustrated guide draws together different areas of BRE radon-related research: 1 Passive radon sump systems; 2 Communal radon sump systems; 3 Spillage of combustion products; 4 Protecting new extensions and conservatories. It supplements existing guidance. GG25 

Buying homes in radon-affected areas
Practical advice for anyone involved in buying or selling homes in areas affected by radon. Although radon is important, this guide shows how dealing with it need not prevent or delay property transactions. It explains simply what radon is, the health risks, where it is found, how to measure it and practical methods for reducing the risk. The guide is written mainly for solicitors, conveyancers, surveyors and estate agents, but it will also be of interest to buyers and sellers. BR464 

CFCs and the building industry
A review of how and when the ban on CFCs and halons - now accepted as contributors to depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect - will affect the production and use of refrigeration and air conditioning plant, thermal insulation materials and fire-fighting equipment. IP23/89 

CFCs in buildings
It is now generally accepted that CFC emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer and that production must be phased out as soon as possible. One of a series on issues of environmental significance, this Digest summarises recent and proposed changes the current phase-out timetables, and replacement options. DG358 

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings: 2000 and beyond
This report summarises current knowledge of energy consumption and carbon emissions of UK non-domestic buildings. It gives a detailed assessment of the technical and economic potential for carbon savings in public and commercial buildings. Information is presented at the sector level to provide a detailed understanding of emissions that arise from patterns of energy use in different types of building activity. The results of modelling future carbon emissions from public and commercial buildings are also presented. BR442 

Dwellings with cellars and basements
One of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings, based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. It will help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. BR343 

Formaldehyde vapour from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation
Describes type of walls where formaldehyde vapour ingress may be high. IP25/82 

Greenhouse-gas emissions and buildings in the United Kingdom
The authors explore the relationship between building energy use and the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. They also consider the scope for reducing CO2 emissions through applying energy efficiency measures in existing buildings. IP2/90 

Major alterations and conversions
This report describes how radon-protection measures may be incorporated within a building when major alterations or conversion works are being carried out. The report covers buildings used as living accommodation. BR267 

Positive pressurisation
Positive pressurisation uses a house pressurising fan unit, usually positioned in the roof space, to blow filtered fresh air into the dwelling. This guide is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels using this method. BR281 

Potential carbon emission savings from combined heat and power in buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced through the application of combined heat and power in UK buildings. The results are of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for buildings-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP4/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in commercial buildings
This paper presents an initial analysis of the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by the implementation of a few simple energy efficiency measures in the United Kingdom's commercial buildings. IP3/96 

Potential carbon emission savings from energy efficiency in housing
This paper analyses the extent to which carbon emissions could be reduced by simple energy-efficiency measures in the housing stock. It will be of interest to those wishing to gain an overview of the scope for housing-related energy savings through increased efficiency. IP15/95 

Protecting dwellings with suspended timber floors
Describes the solutions available to reduce radon levels, including enhanced natural underfloor ventilation, mechanical underfloor ventilation systems, sump systems, positive pressurisation systems, replacing suspended timber floors with concrete slabs, sealing the timber floor and house ventilation. BR270 

Protective measures for housing on gas-contaminated land
This manual is a practical guide to current good practice for the detailing and the construction of passive soil gas protective measures for new and existing residential development. The gases considered are principally methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures of the two. The sources of both gases are typically: fill or made ground containing biodegradable organic material; soils with a high organic content, eg peat; coal measures and/or underground mine workings; soil gas migrating from a nearby source. The details are also applicable to radon and, subject to the suitability of the materials, VOCs.  BR414 

Radon in the workplace
This guide is principally aimed at building owners, tenants and estate managers, but also surveyors and builders dealing with radon in the workplace. Guidance is given on the legislation relating to radon in the workplace, radon measurement, possible remedial measures and how to get the work done. Advice is offered for the majority of construction types and building uses. BR293 

Radon sump systems
This guide advises surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels by means of a radon sump system. A radon sump is essentially a hole in the ground with a fan connected to it sucking from the hole, creating negative pressure and thus preventing radon-laden air from entering. BR227 

Radon: Guidance on protective measures for new buildings, extensions, conversions and refurbishment
This guide, which supports Building Regulations Approved Document L, offers practical guidance for reducing the concentration of radon in new buildings, extensions, conversions, and refurbishment in order to reduce the risk to occupants of exposure to radon, which can cause lung cancer. It has been prepared to help architects, designers, builders, and installers, specify and install successful radon protective measures. The guide contains maps of England and Wales for identifying areas where radon protective measures should be installed. This 2007 edition of the report replaces guidance published in 1999. The principal changes over previous editions are: •clearer guidance on where protective measures are required through the introduction of new risk assessment maps jointly prepared by the Health Protection Agency and the British Geological Survey. •additional guidance on protective measures for new non-domestic buildings and extensions. •new guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for new suspended timber ground floors. Features / Benefits - New maps with additional detail such as towns and road networks to help readers identify radon affected areas more easily. - Additional drawings and photographs - New guidance on protective measures for conversion and refurbishment projects and for suspended timber ground floors Readership Architects, architectural technicians, designers, builders, installers, building control officers and approved inspectors BR211 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Northern Ireland
Gives guidance, in support of the Building Regulations for Northern Ireland, on reducing the concentration of radon in new dwellings and extensions, and hence the risk to occupants. It focuses on constructional features that affect this risk, and provides practical details on methods of protecting new dwellings and extensions to existing buildings. The guidance is also useful for new structures whose form of construction and compartmentation is similar to that of housing. BR413 

Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings in Scotland
Radon is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas. It is formed where uranium and radium are present and can move through cracks and fissures into the subsoil, and so into the atmosphere or into spaces under and in dwellings. Where radon occurs in high concentrations it can pose a risk to health. This publication contains detailed maps of designated radon-affected areas in Scotland and guidance on protective measures. BR376 

Sealing cracks in solid floors
Deals mainly with concrete floors laid directly on the ground, but some of the principles could be used with suspended concrete floors and, to a lesser extent, with large stone slabs. BR239 

Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels
This report supplements guidance in The Householders' Guide to Radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the DoE. BR250 

The importance of indoor surface pollution in sick building syndrome
There is growing evidence that indoor surface pollution (ISP) is one of the causes of sick building syndrome. ISP includes contaminants such as dust, fibres and micro-organisms, which are deposited on building surfaces and in office furnishings. This paper addresses the relative importance for sick building syndrome of ISP and airborne pollution, and recommends ways to reduce ISP in offices. It will be of interest to researchers, building managers and occupational hygienists. IP3/94 

Time-dependent modelling of soil gas movement
This reports reviews papers covering many aspects of soil gas modelling, and those involving time dependence in particular. The principal areas of interest are the development and migration of gas from landfill sites, and the effect of changing atmospheric pressure on radon and landfill gas emissions from the ground. BR298 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 1 describes sources and methods for measuring VOC emissions, and data for assessing health risks and pollution loads. DG464/1 

VOC emissions from building products
Building materials and furnishing products are significant sources of VOCs in indoor environments. VOCs have a strong impact on indoor air quality during the first two years of a new building. The pollution load can be reduced by selecting low emission materials. An emission database is being developed at BRE and will enable designers and users to evaluate the impact of materials on indoor air quality. Part 2 describes available guidelines and labelling schemes for control of VOC emissions in buildings.  DG464/2 

VOC emissions from flooring adhesives
This Information Paper discusses the methods for testing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from flooring adhesives, and the related European standards. Provides data about the criteria required by labelling schemes for flooring adhesives and evaluates the test methods used to define 'low-emission' products. IP12/03