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Home > Materials > Stone

Stone


Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning a London church, a brick building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of stone masonry, is covered by IP9/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the effect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP10/99 

Cleaning exterior masonry
When buildings become soiled and stained, owners, occupiers and managers must decide whether and how they should be cleaned. This Information Paper describes the issues concerned with cleaning Stockport Town Hall, a stone building, one of two buildings studied for the likely effects, good and bad, of cleaning. (The other building, mainly of brick, is covered by IP10/99.) This paper is addressed to owners, building managers, architects, surveyors, and professionals with interest in the appearance of buildings, and the efect of cleaning on the durability of the building fabric. IP9/99 

Control of biological growths on stone
This paper provides guidance on the control of biological growths on external stone surfaces. It describes the types of growth occurring on external stone and their potential effects on the stone and reports on comparative tests on the efficacy of different types of control procedures using chemical washes. It will be of interest to buildings managers and architects. IP11/95 

Durability tests for building stone
Tests for the durability of natural building stones are not generally understood, and there are few British Standards covering the selection of stone. This report lists the relevant British Standards, and details the tests developed by BRE for assessing the durability of limestones, sandstones and slates. BR141 

External cladding: how to determine the thickness of natural stone panels
Describes in simple steps two ways to establish the suitability of a cladding panel: by direct reference to the load to be carried and by comparison with stones that can be specified at thinner sizes. These methods apply to most types but are of particular importance to limestones and sandstones where the current recommended thickness of 70 mm is often a significant barrier to the use of many traditional UK limestones. IP7/98 

External claddings using thin stone
Describes BRE's research into the use of thin, natural stone cladding. Particularly important issues include changes to BS 8298: 1994, problems associated with the use of thin marble cladding and the effect of flame texturing granite cladding. IP6/97 

Lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, research was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: vulnerability to impact damage, effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP10/01 

Principles of masonry conservation management
This Digest provides an overview of the principles of the conservation management of masonry in historic buildings. It discusses the legislative framework in the UK (including interactions with planning authorities and conservation bodies, and regional variations in conservation policy) and the general principles of conservation practice, including minimal intervention, protection against disaster and neglect, use of identical replacement materials or the nearest analogues, respecting the spirit of the core of the building, maintaining a log of works, and agreeing a protocol for project management before a project begins. An Annex lists key events in the development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation in the UK. A further Digest will cover the conservation of stonework, terracotta and brickwork, and renders, plasters and stucco. Features / Benefits ~Concise, authoritative summary of the principles of conservation practice in masonry ~Essential reading for building professionals involved with conservation work ~Includes summary of key events in development of building conservation bodies, practice and legislation Readership Conservation architects, consultants and contractors, stone masons, site managers and owners of historic buildings DG502 

Selecting natural building stones
One of the attractions of natural building stone is the wide variety of colours and textures available to designers. Unlike colour and texture, durability is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. This Digest summarises tests that can be applied to natural building stone. DG420 

Stone cladding panels: in-situ weathering
As new sawing techniques become available, the use of thin stone cladding has been increasing. But the failure of some cladding indicates that more needs to be understood about its performance. This paper outlines recent research findings that have identified a number of areas where extra care is required from the designer and contractor. This research demonstrates the importance of reliable guidance for the selection and use of this type of stone cladding. IP18/98 

The building limestones of France
This publication deals with the identification of French limestones and the terms used to describe them. It also provides an assessment of their durability and their behaviour when exposed in the UK. SO29 

The building limestones of the British Isles
A guide for architects to available British limestones including their durability, location, sizes of quarries, and buildings where they can be seen. 1983 SO36 

The building magnesian limestones of the British Isles
A guide (with photographs) to the availability of magnesian limestones for building. Each quarry producing the stone is identified and located by grid reference, and information given about quarry size, suitable uses, size of blocks, petrography, durability and reference buildings. BR134 

The building sandstones of the British Isles
This illustrated book provides designers and architects of new buildings, and others involved in restoration work, with a comprehensive guide to the currently available sandstones used in building. The book includes quarry locations, potential stone reserves, descriptions of the stone and available sizes, applications and reference buildings. BR84 

The building slates of the British Isles
Guidance for architects and designers on the availability and durability of British building and roofing slate. For each of the 27 quarries it gives information on location, petrography of the slate, results of laboratory tests and lists of reference buildings. BR195 

Use of lightweight veneer stone cladding panels
This Information Paper reviews current knowledge on the use of thin stone veneer as part of composite cladding panels. In collaboration with industry, a limited research programme was carried out to identify potential problems associated with thin veneer stone cladding. Three main areas were considered: its vulnerability to impact damage, the effect of repeated wetting and drying cycles, and the effect of differential thermal movement between the stone veneer and the backing material. IP17/98