ihs brepress logo bre connect Website

Order BRE books from IHS BRE Press

t: +44 (0) 1344 328038
f: +44 (0) 1344 328005
e: brepress@ihs.com

Online:
www.ihsbrepress.com

 

 

CIS Service Website

Call +44 (0)1344 328300 to discuss your online construction information requirements

Home > Building elements and structures > Structural design and performance

Structural design and performance


A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978¿86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world¿s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242 

A deterministic calibration of draft BS 5950 'The structural use of steelwork in buildings'
The method used in this calibration was based on a comparison of the capacities of structural elements derived according to BS 449 'Specification for the use of structural steel in building' with those according to draft BS 5950. BR101 

Approaches to the design of reinforced concrete flat slabs
Choice of design method for reinforced concrete flat slabs should be based on what is appropriate for the structure, the designer's experience, and what will benefit the client most. This report gives pointers to how existing design guidance and methods could be developed and made more user-friendly, particularly with the introduction of Eurocode 2. It also points out issues for the permanent works designer to consider as a result of the desire to strike slabs earlier and speed up construction. BR422 

Backprop forces and deflections in flat slabs
This work investigated the conclusions from the European Concrete Building Project at Cardington that slab deflections can be increased significantly by cracking induced by construction loading. Measurements showed that peak load occurs when the slab above is cast and that the upper floor in a supporting assembly carries more load from casting the slab above than usually assumed. This was investigated at St George Wharf by measuring backprop forces during construction. BR463 

Best practice in concrete frame construction
This report details the demonstration at St George Wharf of the practical benefits of adopting many of the innovative features and techniques used in the design and construction of the European Concrete Building Project's in-situ concrete frame building at Cardington. BR462 

Best practice in concrete frame construction: case studies
The third in a series that has studied the application of the Cardington project on actual construction projects. Studies the application of initiatives trialled on two medium-sized commercial reinforced concrete structures. It covers reinforcement rationalisation for flat slabs, proprietary punching shear reinforcement, electronic rebar information, early age striking and reduced backpropping, early age strength assessment using LOK tests, deflection prediction and measurement, special concretes (high strength, self compacting, ultra high strength), the use of the National Structural Concrete Specification, and productivity measurements.  BR479 

Bibliography on cold-formed, thin-walled steel structures, 1978–86
Research into the structural behaviour of thin-walled, cold-formed steel structures has expanded considerably in recent years, but information in some databases is not very extensive. This report contains 637 references, the results of a search of the on-line database Compendex, together with many references from other sources. BR112 

Connecting walls and floors
Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or well strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this in mind, but many older buildings do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retro-fit fixing systems that can bring sturctures up to modern safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems. This second part considers design and peformance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. This second part of the Guide considers design and performance issues of wall and floor ties. GG29/2 

Connecting walls and floors
The current Building Regulations require floors and roofs to be tied or strapped to the walls to maximise the stability and robustness of the structures. While this occurs naturally in frame structures, it must be considered at the design stage for masonry structures. New structures can be built with this requirement in mind, but many older buildings, mainly domestic, do not meet it. Part 1 of this Guide examines a number of retrofit systems that can bring safety standards, alleviate bulging in walls and other related stability problems.  GG29/1 

Cracking in buildings
Most cracks happen because of small movements within and between the material and elements used in the construction of buildings, usually at points of weakness such as at openings in walls for windows and doors. Cracking in buildings explains the science of cracking in an uncomplicated way, giving those from the building professions who wish to make precise calculations the means and examples to do so.  BR292 

Damage to structures from ground-borne vibration
Ground-borne vibrations from civil engineering, blasting or traffic often cause noticeable vibrations in buildings. Householders are occasionally worried that vibrations might damage their property and this can be a significant cause of distress. Guidance levels for damage from ground-borne vibration were introduced in BS 7385 and this Digest gives information on the UK position concerning damage to buildings. DG403 

Design stresses for timber; background to BS 5268:Part 2
The 1984 revision of the structural code for timber incorporates revised grade stresses and a new system for classifying the strength of timber. This paper outlines the reasons for these changes and explains the new method of deriving grade stresses. IP18/85 

Fire safety of concrete structures
Brings together information from testing and research over a number of years. Investigations have found that the experimental results used to develop the tabulated approach in BS 8110 fully supported the provisions of the code in relation to assumed periods of fire resistance. Furthermore in many cases these provisions were found to be conservative. Evidence from performance in real fires over a number of years demonstrates that the tabular approach to determining fire resistance of concrete elements has been effective. BR468 

Guidance for engineers conducting static load tests on building structures
The loading regime adopted for a load test must reflect the load environment of the structure being tested, and in particular whether this environment is predominately static or dynamic. This paper gives guidance on whether the response of a structure can be regarded as static, and it offers recommendations for static load tests, including interpretation and safety considerations. It will help engineers to formulate suitable test programmes. IP2/95 

Loads generated by jumping crowds: experimental assessment
This paper describes an experimental investigation of the dynamic loads produced by groups of up to 64 people jumping in time to music. It focuses on the changes in the characteristics of the load with increasing numbers of people. The responses were analysed to determine peak accelerations and displacements. The load model was then used to calculate the floor response for comparison with the measurements. The measurements demonstrate that both safety and serviceability must be considered in the design of floors to withstand this type of loading. IP4/02 

Multi-storey timber frame buildings
This book will be of interest to all building professionals responsible for the design and construction of multi-storey timber frame buildings. Building control, local authorities and insurance companies will also benefit from the normative guidance provided for timber frame buildings. Since this publication documents the results and lessons learnt from research conducted on the world’s first six-storey timber building using the platform frame technique of construction, the information contained within will also have global appeal for regulators and code writers. Design and best practice guidance is provided on: structural stability and robustness (disproportionate collapse), fire safety, differential movement, construction benchmarking, the construction process and building tolerances. These subjects were investigated as part of the TF2000 project which investigated seven real projects during 1994 and 1995 and then designed and tested a six-storey timber building at Cardington. Results of the fire tests on this building are discussed. BR454 

Permanent cantilever grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results obtained from full-scale tests on permanent cantilever grandstands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from ten stands that were monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing licensing stands. IP5/00 

Reinforced concrete framed structures: comparative design study to EC2 and BS8110
This desk study was commissioned by BRE as part of the DTLR (now ODPM) 'Framework' Project for the implementation of Eurocode 2 for the design of concrete structures in the UK. Its purpose was to prepare and compare parallel designs of a typical reinforced concrete framed structure to EC2 and to British Standard BS 8110, to assess their differences in terms of economy of construction and design process. This study provides part of the calibration data required to assist the committee preparing the UK National Annex to EC2. The following material is included: design calculations to Eurocode 2; design calculations to BS 8110; reinforcement drawings for a typical floor; material quantities and construction costs. BR455 

Relocatable buildings: structural design, construction and maintenance
Presents some of the factors to be considered in the design of relocatable buildings and offers guidance on suitable details and procedures. DG374 

Retractable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives results from full-scale tests on six retractable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from three stands monitored during rock concerts are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP4/00 

Static load testing: concrete floor and roof structures within buildings
This Digest gives guidance for engineers on how to conduct and interpret the results from load tests on concrete floor and roof structures within buildings. It is based on experience gained testing different types of concrete floor construction both in the laboratory and in the field. The Digest brings together and summarises the results of work which have already been published. DG402 

Steel structures supporting composite floor slabs: design for fire
Test results and observations from real fires in buildings have continually shown that steel framed structures comprising composite floor slabs and downstand steel beams perform far better than current fire design methods suggest. This Digest shows how the true structural behaviour of these types of buildings can be calculated in fire, allowing a reduction in the amount of passive fire protection currently used. DG462 

Structural appraisal of existing buildings for change of use
Deals with structural appraisal of traditional buildings, constructed using rule-of-thumb and experience for the layout and sizing of structural members, and those whose structure has been designed, calculated and specified according to engineering principles. DG366 

Structural assessment: the use of full and large scale testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1987 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP11 

Structural design for hazardous loads: the role of physical testing
Proceedings of a conference in April 1991 organised by the Model Analysis as a Design Tool Study Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers. EP10 

Structural design in architecture
This Digest is a statement of one approach to the problem of structural design within the context of architectural design as a whole. DG12 

Structural vibration and damage
Reviews information on the vibration of structures due to transport services and industrial processes and its effect on the occupants; also information on damage to the buildings. The natural periods of buildings and structural elements, and the dampness of structures and their constituent materials, are considered. BR69 

Temporary demountable grandstands: dynamic response
This paper gives details of full-scale tests on 50 temporary demountable stands. The dynamic behaviour of the empty stands (natural frequencies, damping values and mode shapes) are presented. The results from 23 stands monitored during live events are also presented. This paper will be of interest to engineers and local authorities responsible for designing or licensing stands. IP3/00 

The incidence of accidental loadings in buildings, 1971-1981
Data on the occurrence in Great Britain of various extreme incidents, not specified in loading codes, were collected for the 10 years 1971-1981. The principal features of the data are outlined, focusing on the more recent years, overall trends and some topical points. IP8/83 

The response of structures to dynamic crowd loads
BS 6399-1, Loading for buildings, Code of practice for dead and imposed loads, includes guidance on dynamic loads generated by synchronized crowd movement. This Digest provides information that explains and supports the recommendations in the Standard, and provides a method for calculating structural response to rhythmic crowd loads. It also includes improved information on the loads generated by crowds. DG426 

The structural adequacy and durability of large panel system dwellings: summary of the report
Summarises the principal findings, conclusions and recommendations of the BRE Report on the structural adequacy and durability of LPS dwellings. IP8/87 

The use of light-gauge cold-formed steelwork in construction
A review of research, design and application of light-gauge cold-formed steel sections and profiled sheeting in the construction industry. BR142 

U-values for light steel-frame construction
This Digest gives a method for assessing U-values of light steel-frame constructions, developed by BRE and SCI. The method has been validated using BS EN ISO 10211-1 and enables U-values to be calculated by a simplified method similar to that in BS EN ISO 6946. It can easily be incorporated into software tools used by designers, builders and enforcers of the Building Regulations. This Digest supports the 2002 editions of Approved Documents L1 and L2. It is addressed to designers and others concerned with energy efficiency in buildings. DG465 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 1. Identification and typical defects
First of a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 9/86 and IP 10/86. IP8/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: 3. Investigation and diagnosis of failure
Third in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 9/86. IP10/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel systems: flat roofs, balconies and deck accessways
Examines the typical faults occurring in horizontal weatherproofing membranes in large panel system dwellings and the most appropriate remedial measures. IP15/86 

Weatherproof joints in large panel sytems: 2. Remedial measures
Second in a series of three publications to assist engineers in local authorities and elsewhere in appraisal, maintenance and repair of large panel system dwellings. Should be read in conjunction with IP 8/86 and IP 10/86. IP9/86 

Why do buildings crack?
Examines the causes of cracking in buildings. Describes with illustrations the results of a wide range of problems. Broadens understanding of the factors responsible, increases the likelihood of correct diagnosis and repair and provides a key to more specialised BRE publications. DG361 

Worked examples for the design of steel structures
This report provides engineers with a set of examples that meet the requirements of British Standard DD ENV 1993-1-1: 1992, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings. BR242