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Home > Materials > Timber > Timber durability and treatment

Timber durability and treatment


Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13 

Avoiding joinery decay by design
Outlines guidelines which should greatly improve the durability of joinery. IP10/80 

Blue staining of timber in service: its cause, prevention and treatment
Describes the defect of timber known as 'blue stain in service', caused by the growth of a particular group of fungi. This paper shows the conditions required for the growth of the fungi, the means of preventing the defect, and the remedial treatment necessary to prevent further development. IP9/91 

Catalogue of the National Collection of wood-rotting macro-fungi
The list of fungi held in the collection with the current name for each, synonyms, and the name under which each strain was deposited. Also recorded are brief details of the source, history and accession numbers from other collections. Procedures for depositing, ordering and supply of, and reference to, cultures are given. BR121 

Controlling deathwatch beetle
Because deathwatch beetle can cause structural damage, wood which is infested requires urgent examination and usually an effective insecticidal treatment. This Information Paper, an update of previous guidance, evaluates the control measures which are in current use and provides an outline approach to remedial treatment. IP19/86 

Dry rot: its recognition and control
Decay of timber occurs only when wood is allowed to remain wet over long periods. In buildings the most serious type of decay is dry rot, which is caused by the fungus Serpula lacrymans. This Digest explains how to recognise dry rot and how to eradicate it. DG299 

Durability of timber in ground contact
This paper reports findings from long-term testing at BRE to benchmark the performance of timber in ground contact. It concludes that most new hardwood species becoming available in the UK market are of limited durability. It recognises, though, that treatment can extend the service life of many softwood species, and concludes that a significant improvement in the service life of treated spruce in ground contact can be achieved by incising prior to treatment. This paper complements IP 6/99, IP 2/01 and Digest 429. IP14/01 

Emulsion-based formulation for remedial treatments against woodworm
Considers the overall performance of surface applied remedial treatment systems. IP15/83 

European Standards for wood preservatives and treated wood
Revision of the key European performance standards on wood preservatives and treated wood (EN 335, EN351 and EN 599) is due to be completed by the end of 2003, and preparation of standards for remedial treatment products is under way. This paper describes progress and reviews the work being done to support development of these standards. IP1/03 

Evaluating joinery preservatives
Findings from BRE's long-term programme of long-term field testing of timber out of contact with the ground are presented in this paper, which shows that new active ingredients for joinery preservatives are able to provide approriate increases in the serivce life of timber joinery, while offering improvements in certian health and safety respects over those provided by traditional joinery preservatives. IP2/01 

External joinery: end-grain sealers and moisture control
Effective moisture control is essential for maintaining the integrity of external joinery and achieving good paint performance, best achieved by sealing the end-grain of joinery components before assembly. This paper reviews the effect of end-grain sealing on the performance of external joinery. IP20/87 

External timber structures
This Digest provides guidance on appropriate and enhanced specifications of timber preservatives, with additional measures for maximising the service life of timber. It takes account of new types of preservative that are available, and guidance in recent BRE publications, British Standards and other industry publications. It will be useful for all those wanting to specify durable timber structures for external use, and to understand the key issues in ensuring durability. Features / Benefits Straightforward guide to the use of preservatives to extend the life of timber structures Introduces new preservative products developed in the light of restrictions on the use of traditional products Explains ways of maximising the life of timber structures Readership Specifiers, civil and structural engineers, building owners and developers, contractors, timber and preservative suppliers DG503 

Factory-applied stain basecoats for exterior joinery
Trials have shown a wide disparity in the weather resistance of stain basecoats which can have major implications for the service life of joinery finishes. Advice is given on the selection and use of stain basecoats. IP2/92 

House longhorn beetle survey
Describes the damage caused to timber by the house longhorn beetle, the distribution of the insect in the UK and the area within which preservative treatment of softwood roofing timbers is mandatory. IP12/82 

House longhorn beetle: geographical distribution and status in the UK
House longhorn beetle cause potentially serious damage to softwood roofing timbers within a specific area of south-east England. This paper describes damage caused and prevalence of the species. IP8/94 

Identifying damage by wood-boring insects
A number of insects are able to use wood as a food source and some of these may cause serious damage to building timbers in the UK. This Digest introduces wood-boring insects and illustrates the types of damage which are serious enough to require remedial treatment, distinguishing them from other, less significant types of damage.  DG307 

In-situ treatment of exterior joinery using boron-based implants
Describes the use of boron-based rods or tablets for the in-situ treatment of exterior joinery and recommends where to position these implants to give the best protection against further decay. IP14/91 

Incising UK-grown Sitka spruce
This paper provides a platform for understanding the potential opportunities and benefits of incising spruce, and for increasing the end-use applications of UK-grown timber. It gives results of field trials and laboratory tests which show how incising the timber can improve penetration of preservative and hence increase durability. The paper will be of interest to those involved in the specification and use of treated wood products, and to the wider wood-processing industry and fencing producers. IP13/05 

Insecticidal treatments against wood-boring insects
A strategy for remedial treatment of damaged building timbers is outlined in this Digest; it describes the types of treatments available and gives practical advice on their relative advantages and limitations in eradicating infestations by specific wood-boring insects. It complements Digest 307 which identifies the major wood-boring insects in the UK. DG327 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber in ground contact
This report is one of a series covering the long-term testing of wood preservatives and timber durability. It gives the results of 20 years' exposure for tests started since 1950, and details of new trials established between 1950 and 1970, and revised to 1993. The test is the ground contact stake test, the normal method for assessing preservatives intended for severe service conditions. BR276 

Long-term field trials on preserved timber out of ground contact
Presents the results of BRE field trials to evaluate the durability of simulated joinery components exposed to the weather but above the ground. The simulated components were in the form of unpainted T-joints and painted L-joints either untreated or treated with various wood preservatives and water repellents. The exposure period was up to 23 years, during which time the joints were examined yearly. Revised to 1990. BR249 

Preservation of hem-fir timber
Timbers at risk from attack by wood-destroying organisms need effective preservative treatments. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the treatment of joinery-grade and construction-grade hem-fir with preservatives and processes now used for exterior joinery and timber-frame studding. IP5/90 

Preservative treated timber: the UKs code of best practice
European standards for the preservative treatment of timber are written in terms of the results of the treatment process rather than the process itself; to check compliance with this type of specification, a clear interpretation of the standards is needed for both specifier and treater. This Information Paper presents progress in the review of BSI DD 239, the UK's interpretative guidance document. It complements IPs 6/99, 4/97, 9/96 and 11/92. IP13/01 

Preservative treating veneer plywood against decay
For certain uses, where there is an identifiable risk of decay, plywood may need to be treated with wood preservative. To assist suppliers and users of treated plywood this Information Paper discusses the treatment methods available and makes general recommendations based on laboratory trials on treatability and decay resistance. IP24/86 

Preservative-treated timber for exterior joinery: applying the new European Standards
Complementing Digest 393 and IP 9/96, this paper details the treatment of four commercial softwoods with light organic solvent wood preservatives using schedules currently in use in the UK, and compares them with the probable requirements based upon new European Standards on wood preservation. IP4/97 

Preservative-treated timber: checking compliance with new European Standards
Explains the mechanism recommended in European Standards for checking timber compliance with results-type specifications. This includes procedures for obtaining a representative sample to assess penetration and retention of preservative. This paper complements Digest 393. IP9/96 

Preservative-treated timber: ensuring conformity with European Standards
This Paper reports a study by BRE and industry of UK methods for quantifying retention of copper/chromium/arsenic and creosote in treated timber. It concludes that current methods are not wholly adequate and can cause uncertainties for specifier and treater. Unequivocal methods for sampling and analysis can be found. In addition, a common practical method for determining timber density is required since, to express retention, analytical results have to converted to kg/m3. This paper complements IP4/97 and updates IP9/96. It will interest specifiers, manufacturers and timber treaters. IP6/99 

Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings
This third edition has been improved by addition of guidance on types of fungal growths which, though less regularly encountered in buildings, nonetheless confuse correct identification and mislead diagnosis. It also has a short section on termites to provide reassurance on recognition and appropriate action should there be suspicion of a rare introduction. Since the first edition was published, there has been a greatly increased emphasis on conservation, repair and refurbishment of timber in buildings. There has also been an increasing desire to avoid the risk of excessive use of remedial preservatives by implementing environmental control strategies to bring decay and insect attack under control. These strategies depend critically on correct diagnosis to prevent inappropriate or unnecessary use of pesticides against extinct attack by wood borers, harmless insects or extinct fungal damage. This book retains its highly popular format (spiral-bound) giving clear and authoritative guidance on the process of inspecting buildings for timber damage and on the identification of causal agencies. BR453 

Schedules for the preservation of hem-fir timber
Describes the results achieved by three different schedules for the application of organic-solvent preservatives by double-vacuum processes tailored to meet the special requirements of hem-fir timber. IP11/92 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/1 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443 

Termites and UK buildings
The unintentional importation and establishment of termites in a small area in North Devon has shown that at least one genus of termite can survive in the UK climate and present a risk to buildings. This Digest describes the biology of the termites, their significance as potential structural pests, and gives diagnosis and infestation, recognition and the key principles of termite detection and management. Part 1 deals with biology, detection and diagnosis. Part 2 deals with control an management, including colony elimination for eradication purposes. DG443/2 

The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
Presents detailed records of the long-term natural durability of 180 different timber species tested at BRE field sites, and classifies their performance. This report is the third in a series covering the long-term field trials of timber durability and complements BR249 and BR276. BR311 

The effect of water-repellent preservative treatment on moisture levels in window joinery
Gives information on moisture contents measured in Scots pine and whitewood window test units over an eight year period of natural exposure. IP20/82 

The termite resistance of board materials
Summarises research information obtained using the European subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. IP9/81 

Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment.
Timber exposed to moisture is at risk from attack by wood-rotting fungi. To obtain a good service life, it is important to select a timber species that is either naturally durable or amenable to preservative treatment. This Digest explains the classification of durability and treatability for timber, and classifies these properties for over 150 species. It is concerned with natural durability only in relation to fungal decay and not to resistance to attack by insects and marine borers. DG429 

Wet rots: recognition and control
A description of the main types of wet rot generally found in buildings, how to distinguish them from dry rot, and the strategy for their control. It complements Digest 299 which gives guidance on identifying and controlling dry rot. DG345 

Wood borers damaging timber in buildings
These two CDs contain 52 images of wood rot and other fungi and 78 images of wood-borers and damage to timber caused by wood-borers. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The CD contains high, medium and low resolution images and can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage following purchase. AP153 

Wood preservation in Europe
Describes the provision of technical specifications to define fitness for free trade within Europe, looks at the most critical Standards and describes performance requirements. BR229 

Wood rot and other funghi in buildings
This CD contains 52 images of wood rot and other fungi found in buildings. The majority of these pictures appear in the BRE publication, Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings. The images within this publication on insect and insect damage are available on another CD, Wood-Borers damaging Timber in Building. There are high (approx. 10X8 inches @ 300 dpi), medium (7X5 @ 300 dpi) and low resolution (8X6 @ 72 dpi) images contained on the CD, all of which can be easily accessed. Low resolution copies can be viewed within a catalogue containing various data appropriate to each image. Royalty free usage means that following purchase of this CD all the images may be used in almost any way you choose as many times as you require and for as long as you want with very few exceptions. AP152 

Wood rot: assessing and treating decay
Contains advice on inspecting for wood rot, identifying and treating the different types, and repair or replacement of affected timbers. It should be read in conjunction with Good Repair Guide 13 in identifying and treating insect attack on timber. GR12 

Wood-boring insect attack
Wood, including timber in buildings, can be a food source for many insect species. This Guide contains advice on inspecting timber for wood-boring insects, and identifying different types of attack. Part 1 deals with identifying and assessing damage, and Part 2 with treating damage. GR13