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Home > Materials > Timber > Timber materials and applications

Timber materials and applications


A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously `lesser known¿ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world¿s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties ¿ the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86 

A review of tropical hardwood consumption
Summarises available information and provides a benchmark level against which future tropical hardwood consumption can be compared. Considers alternative materials and discusses whether the use of tropical hardwoods should be continued. BR226 

Canafistula (Peltophorum vogelianum)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and possible uses. IP2/84 

Cerejeira (Amburana acreana, Amburana cearensis)
Describes the source of this commercially new timber from South America, its properties and uses. IP5/83 

Depth factor adjustments in the determination of characteristic bending stresses for visually stress graded timber
Summarises an examination of the effect of beam depth on the bending strength of timber for application in the determination of characteristic bending stresses. IP1/83 

Design of timber floors to prevent decay
Describes how to prevent decay in timber species most commonly used in modern building construction. DG364 

Five-storey timber-frame hall of residence
This Paper describes the design and construction challenges for a student hall of residence at Aberyswyth. The case study focuses on key features of the project with special attention given to the five-storey timber-frame structure. The building was required to re-house over 100 students displaced by fire damage and had to be designed and built in the shortest practicable time. It also had to meet demanding architectural, technical and conversation requirements. IP19/00 

Grumixava (Micropholis gardnerianum)
Describes properties and uses of this Brazilian timber. IP14/80 

Handbook of hardwoods
The principal reference book provides fundamental information and data on timbers available to the UK. Data on strength properties, working properties and plywood manufacture are included. This edition of the Handbook comprises a facsimile reprint of the 1972 edition, providing full descriptions of 117 hardwoods and brief descriptions of a further 103, and a supplement published in 1997, introducing 12 species that were previously ‘lesser known’ or are now available as plantation-grown material. BR400 

Hardwoods for construction and joinery
Presents information about changes in the supply of hardwoods in the UK, particularly types of wood and relative amounts from tropical sources. Suggests that greater use could be made of lesser-known species but that can happen only if adequate areas are available on their properties. DG417 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431/1 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 2 gives results and recommendations for bintangor, hevea, kamarare, niove, taun, and Ghanian plantation teak. DG431/2 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 1 describes the technical assessment methods used. Subsequent parts describe in detail the findings and recommendations for each type of timber.  DG431 

Hardwoods for joinery and construction
Digest 417 lists 16 lesser known species of timber that show potential for new or wider application in construction. This set of Digests gives the results of tests carried out on each of these species and recommends applications for each of them. Part 3 gives results and recommendations for andiroba, dahoma, gmelina, American red oak, Tanzanian plantation teak, and vitex. DG431/3 

Identification of hardwoods
The original Forest Products Research Hardwood Microscope Key (Bulletin 46) has been used by students, researchers, forensic scientists, trading standards authorities, and many others concerned with the identification and accurate specification of the world’s hardwoods. The original Bulletin has been in great demand, especially as copies came into short supply, and reprints have not been available for at least the last 15 years. This publication is essentially a reissue of the original information, scanned using image digitising technology, providing a valuable opportunity to update nomenclature, correct long-standing typographical errors and to include modern species that are now in common supply. A more comprehensive index of common names, alongside botanical listings, has also been added so that the text should stand alone, next to the microscope, without the additional need for the British Standard for Nomenclature.  BR335 

Life cycle impacts of timber
Using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), environmental impacts of construction products can be compared and the impacts of extraction, manufacture, use and disposal can be measured. Using BRE's industry-agreed approach, an LCA of timber products shows that in many applications timber has a low environmental impact, taking into account the impacts of replacement, maintenance and disposal. This Digest contains guidance to help construction professionals take advantage of the excellent performance of timber products. DG470 

Machine grading British-grown Corsican pine
The Code of practice for the structural use of timber, CP 112:Part 2, does not include stress values for . Because of an urgent requirement to machine grade British-grown Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) it was decided to publish this Paper recommending machine grade stresses to enable BSI to issue settings to grading machine operators IP7/81 

Serviceability design of ply-web roof beams
The majority of failures of ply-web beams has been caused by inadequate serviceability design. This paper (which complements IP 7/88) considers serviceability design, the effect of creep and other important factors and offers guidance on how to prevent serviceability failure in ply-web roof beams. IP7/91 

Specifying structural timber
Offers guidance in the preparation of concise and unambiguous specifications for timber, for both materials and workmanship and the proper use of Standards and codes of practice. DG416 

Tatajuba (Bagassa guianesis)
Describes properties and uses of this South American wood. IP8/81 

The design and manufacture of ply-web beams
Covers the design, manufacture and installation of ply-web beams and offers guidance on how to ensure satisfactory beam performance. IP7/88 

The selection of timber for exterior joinery from the genus Shorea
Offers specifiers and joinery manufacturers a set of possible selection criteria for stocks, suggests a selection procedure which can improve the overall durability of Shorea timber used for joinery and shows the importance of preservative treatment. IP10/91 

The strength properties of timber
Describes the testing procedure and presents the results of physical and mechanical tests on 210 hardwoods and softwoods in the green and air-dry conditions. The standard deviation of individual results is also quoted for nominal specific gravity and all strength properties. See also BR329: 1997 supplement. BR241 

The strength properties of timber
This supplement to BR241 provides a summary of the physical and mechanical properties of 12 timber species supplied from current commercial resources. 1997 supplement BR329 

Timber bridges
This Digest covers the basic structural types of timber bridges, lists the standards for the different types of timber and composite that may be used, and discusses structural design including the evaluation of loads. Durability, detailing, connectors, parapets and handrails are covered briefly. DG481 

Timber for joinery
From the wide choice of timber types, it is important for the user to be able to specify the quality of wood and its moisture content appropriate to the end use. This Digest provides information on timber used in joinery and gives guidance on selection. DG407 

Timber frame construction: an introduction
Over the past 75 years, timber framed housing has formed a substantial proportion of the Scottish construction market but a much smaller proportion in England and Wales. Building regulations are requiring increased thermal standards, and all forms of construction are having to adjust. Skills shortages and increasing demands for reduced construction times on site, are leading both to improved forms of traditional construction and to an increase in prefabrication mostly based, to date on timber and steel framing techniques. This Good Building Guide gives a brief introduction to the basics of timber frame construction.  GG60 

Timber frame. A guide to the construction process
Timber frame is a well proven, versatile construction method with the following key benefits: off-site construction method, fast erection, reduction in overall build programme, reduction in risk of delays, easy project planning, timber is a sustainable building material. Choosing timber frame can help achieve a high BREEAM or EcoHomes rating. Through early involvement of the timber frame specialist from project conception, an optimised design solution and build programme can be formulated. Descriptions of the elements of timber frame construction and of the types of timber frame construction are given in feature boxes. DG496 

Timber in construction: challenges for the future
Proceedings of a joint BRE/TRADA Technology seminar at BRE, Garston in September 1996. The seminar focussed on improving construction processes to minimise material waste and eliminate unnecessary use; adding value to the home-grown resource to further reduce imports of timber; and promoting the proper use of timber for the benefit of users, the community and the environment. BR323 

Timber selection by properties – the species for the job
This guide gives guidance on the selection of timber and wood-based panel products for furniture. Extensive information is provided in tables to enable timbers for different uses to be correctly selected. SO42 

Using UK grown Douglas fir and larch timber for external cladding
This Digest discusses the potential for two UK-grown species, Douglas fir and larch for use as external cladding. These timbers have been benchmarked against western red cedar to determine their comparative properties as external cladding timbers during a 2-year project conducted by BRE.  DG494 

Using UK-grown Sitka spruce for exterior cladding
UK grown Sitka spruce is a fast-grown softwood. Its use in the UK has been relatively low, although recently this has changed with increasing interest from architects and designers. Cladding offers an aesthetically pleasing way of enhancing the outside features of a building. This Digest reviews work within projects funded by the Northern Periphery Programme and the Forestry Commission. The project has considered and combined information about the properties and treatment for Sitka spruce, so that selection of a suitable material for the required service life of cladding may be possible. The end product will potentially have a service life beyond that which is currently achieved.  DG500 

Waferboard and OSB
Describes these two related products, compares their properties with other wood-based materials and gives guidance on use. IP5/86