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Home > Materials > Timber > Timber products and processing

Timber products and processing


Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln OperatorŅs Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7 

Advances in timber grading
BRE has played a leading role in the development and implementation of methods for grading structural timber by visual and mechanical means. This Digest reviews current developments and presents new information in the grading of structural timbers in accordance with BS 5268: Part 2. It also presents the grade stresses for sweet chestnut, larger-section Douglas fir and Trussed Rafter grades TR26/TR20, together with a review of the density of British grown Sitka spruce. The information in this Digest supports the consultation leading to the revision of BS 5268: Part 2, and makes it available for application in the design of timber structures. DG445 

An assessment of exterior medium density fibreboard (MDF)
This paper provides information on the performance of one MDF product exposed to natural weathering conditions for five years and subjected to accelerated laboratory tests. These tests were designed to predict the eventual performance of boards under natural exposure conditions. IP2/96 

Best practice of timber waste management
This paper presents the practical issues that affect timber waste in UK construction. It describes timber sources, composition, use and waste, and markets for recycling and disposal together with the plant and machinery for exploiting this resource. It proposes a timber waste classification. Equipment for processing waste timber is listed; legislation covering the disposal of waste timber is mentioned. This material provides the best practicable environmental option for timber waste; a model is tested to provide two examples of what could be achieved. The paper concludes with suggestions of best practice for timber waste management. IP9/03 

Cypermethrin: a new insecticide for wood preservation
Summarises the data obtained on the use of the pyrethroid cypermethrin in preventative and remedial wood preservative formulations. IP18/84 

Developments in stress grading
Provides a brief history of the development of stress grading, and explains the reasons for the changes which are taking place. IP4/82 

Green gluing of timber: a feasibility study
This Information Paper reports on the technical and commercial feasibility of creating a green gluing enterprise in the Greenwood Community Forest in the East Midlands. Results from the study strongly indicate that this enterprise would be commercially viable. It also outlines the steps required for its implementation. IP10/05 

Guide to machine strength grading of timber.
Machine strength grading of timber has been used commercially for at least 30 years, but, for many people involved with the process, it has remained a mystery. Timber enters a grading machine at one end and leaves the other having been given a strength class with no obvious means of how this is achieved. The problems in explaining grading are concerned with statistics, the characteristics of distribution, modification and adjustment factors, and jargon. Without knowing the theory and practice of grading, misunderstandings are likely to arise. The main aim of this Digest, then, is to improve understanding of machine strength grading. DG476 

LOCAS - a control system for sawmills
This paper describes LOCAS (Laser Optimiser and Cant Alignment System): a system which has been developed to control automatically the conversion of sawlogs, reducing waste and increasing the use of high value timber. IP3/84 

Modified wood
Modified wood products add to the architect's and design engineer's resources by offering aesthetically pleasing materials with enhanced performance characteristics that extend maintenance intervals and hence add value for the building owner. This Digest reviews the modified wood products that are already being used in the UK construction market and the technologies that create them. It discusses the future for modified wood products, particularly in cladding, decking and flooring for domestic and commercial buildings. DG504 

Perspectives on European Standards for wood-based panels
Sets out the reasoning behind the set of European Standards being drafted to govern the use of panel products. Also describes some of the new testing and research that has been required. IP9/93 

Reducing kiln-drying twist of Sitka spruce
This paper describes the extent and significance of twist in UK-grown and commercially prepared Sitka spruce. It describes how top weighting during kiln drying, together with modified kiln schedules, can limit twisting, and assesses distortional stability of timber under fluctuating humidity conditions in storage and use. This paper will be of interest to sawmillers, timber agents, suppliers and specifiers. IP8/98 

Sawmilling - what can we learn from North America
Itemises some of the more relevant and thought-provoking developments in sawmilling from North America. IP11/80 

Specifying plywood
Outlines the background to the development of BS 6566, its structure and aims. IP4/85 

The determination of design stresses for plywood
Examines the test data available on the strength and stiffness of structural plywood. BR79 

The determination of softwood strength properties for grades, strength classes and laminated timber for BS 5268: Part 2
Outlines the procedures developed at BRE to determine the modified grade stresses put forward in BS 5268 and explains the new strength class system for structural timber which is incorporated in the standard. BR48 

The structural use of wood-based panels
Discusses available approaches to structural design with wood-based panels. Also explains the difference between the UK and the European approach, in advance of the European standards being adopted in 2004. DG423 

Timber drying manual
The Timber Drying Manual was first published in 1974 to supersede the Kiln Operatorís Handbook that was prepared by the Forest Products Research Laboratory. A second edition was published in 1986 by the Princes Risborough Laboratory, after consultation with the Timber Drying Association and the Timber Research and Development Association. This, the third edition, is virtually a facsimilie reproduction of the second edition. However, there have been five areas in which significant information has been added or amended. The manual continues to provide a source of educational and reference information as it combines explanatory text with up-to-date data appendices.  BR321 

Timber grading and scanning
Timber is an immensely useful but naturally variable material. Wood can contain features, such as knots and sloping grain, that may not be suitable for certain end uses. Dimensional defects and distortion can also affect the use of timber. To use timber reliably for structural purposes, it is important that the strength properties of any member fall within certain limits. Machine grading is a form of non-destructive testing that allows timber to be sorted into strength classes, also enabling timber unsuitable for construction to be rejected. Timber for non-structural uses, such as furniture or flooring, may also be sorted to meet certain appearance grades. This Digest details advances in grading and scanning technology, for both logs and sawn timber, and changes to structural timber grading due to European harmonisation DG492 

Timber stress grading machines
Describes general operation of machines, and specifically describes machines manufactured by MPC, Cook-Bolinder and Raute. IP17/84 

Veneer plywood - a new approach to bond performance
Outlines the new proposed test method, classification by bond type and the sampling and preparation of specimens. IP10/81 

Wood bending handbook
The Wood bending handbook is written from a practical viewpoint. Background information and theory are provided to give reasons for and support the various procedures that are explained. The nature of the timber to be bent and general principles are discussed and these are further clarified by presenting some typical examples. Illustrated throughout. BR407 

Wood-based panel products
One of a series of Digests on issues of environmental significance, this publication describes how an increase in the use of wood-based panel products could make a major contribution to the conservation of forest resources. DG375 

Wood-based panel products: moisture effects and assessing the risk of decay
Suggests how the risk of decay can be assessed using data derived from laboratory tests. IP19/92 

Wood-based panels
One of the newer wood-based panels, medium density fibreboard (MDF) is now produced in massive volumes throughout the world. Its popularity is due primarily to its homogeneous nature and the presence of two smooth high-density surfaces. It is admirably suitable for and widely used as a furniture panel, though it is now making inroads into dry, internal, loadbearing applications in construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 622-5. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986.  DG477/5 

Wood-based panels
Plywood is the oldest of the range of wood-based panels and also the most variable product, encompassing a wide range of timber species cut into veneers of differing thickness bonded with adhesives to give plywoods with lay ups of different appearances, colours, density and performance. Whilst plywood has many major attributes as a sheet material, its greatest weakness lies in its variability. Characterising this variability has been a major challenge to its efficient use over many decades. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 636. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/4 

Wood-based panels
This Digest describes wet-process fibreboards and provides guidance on their use when manufactured to EN 622 Parts 1 to 4. It demonstrates how, when the product is used in construction within Europe, mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986. DG477/6 

Wood-based panels
As far as the UK and the rest of Europe are concerned, oriented strand board (OSB) has come of age. It is now recognised as a wood-based panel in its own right, competing with other wood-based panels in many structural and non-structural applications as well as establishing itself in certain specialised areas. This Digest describes this relatively new product and provides information regarding its performance in general terms. It provides guidance on the use of OSB and how to select and specify the different grades in accordance with EN 300. It also demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using the European Standard. DG477/1 

Wood-based panels
About 2 million cubic metres of particleboard (chipboard) are consumed each year in building applications in the UK. This Digest describes this established product and provides guidance on its use, especially so in the selection and specification of the numerous grades in accordance with EN 312. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/2 

Wood-based panels
High density wood-cement boards were developed in the late 1950s and have been commercially produced since the 1970s. With its high stiffness, high durability, high resistance to moisture, excellent reaction to fire performance and very good sound insulation properties, cement-bonded particleboard should find much wider acceptance in UK construction. This Digest describes this product and provides guidance on its use when manufactured to EN 634. It demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 when the product is used in construction within Europe. DG477/3 

Wood-based panels
This seven-part series of Digests provides an authoritative overview of current wood-based panels. Part 1: Oriented strand board (OSB) Part 2: Particleboard (chipboard) Part 3: Cement bonded particleboard Part 4: Plywood Part 5: Medium density fibreboard (MDF) Part 6: Hardboard, medium board and soft board Part 7: Selection DG477 

Wood-based panels
Wood-based panels must provide adequate performance at an acceptable price. Selection from the wide range of panels available is not easy. This Digest brings together the latest technical information and gives guidance on the types and grades (technical classes) that should be used for the main categories of use in construction. For wood-based panels used in construction in Europe, this Digest demonstrates how mandatory compliance with the Construction Products Directive can be achieved by using EN 13986 together with its supporting European materials specifications. DG477/7