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Home > Environment and services > Ventilation and air quality

Ventilation and air quality


A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight ¿ ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air ¿ for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors¿ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE¿s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which `fresh¿ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99 

A protocol for the assessment of indoor air quality
BRE specialists reviewed the parameters that determine indoor air quality (IAQ) and drafted a protocol for undertaking an IAQ assessment. This report provides the final protocol, revised following comments from experts and a field trial, and is intended as guidance for specialists undertaking an IAQ assessment and building owners/managers concerned about IAQ. The key parameters are temperature, humidity, non-biological particles and fibres, biological particles, radon, other inorganic gases, organic compounds and gases associated with landfill sites (eg methane). BR450 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67 

Achieving airtightness: General principles
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This first part describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details. Parts 2 and 3 provide practical guidance on airtightness techniques appropriate to most building types. GG67/1 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - floors, walls and roofs
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This second part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 3 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. GG67/2 

Achieving airtightness: Practical guidance on techniques - windows and doors, sealing methods and materials
The aim of this three-part Good Building Guide is to give the best advice on achieving airtightness in new buildings. It is based on data obtained from laboratory testing and observations made while undertaking air leakage audits in buildings. This third part gives practical guidance on techniques for achieving airtightness in windows and doors, sealing methods and materials. Part 1 describes the common air leakage paths and sets out the principles to follow when developing energy-efficient construction details and Part 2 provides practical guidance on achieving airtightness in floors, walls and roofs. GG67/3 

Air quality, radon and ventilation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on air quality, radon and ventilation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 26 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP250 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
Adequate ventilation is essential for the health and comfort of building occupants, but excessive ventilation leads to energy waste and sometimes discomfort. Often, the planned ventilation is augmented by unwanted infiltration through air leakage paths in the building envelope; this leads to the concept of 'build tight – ventilate right'. Attention has focused on reducing unwanted infiltration by the review of Part L of the Building Regulations, which will lead to reduced energy consumption in buildingsand will interest those involved in design, specification and supervision of construction of new dwellings. IP1/00 

Airtightness in UK dwellings
This paper summarises the findings from a large number of airtightness measurements carried out by BRE in UK dwellings. It describes how airtightness may be measured in single dwellings, the relationship of air leakage with ventilation, and ways to improve airtightness. It is aimed at those responsible for designing and supervising construction work for new and existing dwellings, both in the public and private sectors. BR359 

Airtightness in commercial and public buildings
Addresses the importance of airtightness in commercial and public buildings and supports the requirements on airtightness specified in Approved Document L2 (2002 edition) to the Building Regulations. The report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer and advising on common pitfalls. It covers the mechanics that cause air infiltration to occur; the benefits which result from increasing airtightness; designing and specifying for airtightness; site practice for airtight construction; and testing buildings. BR448 

Airtightness of ceilings. Energy loss and condensation risk
Typically about 20% of the air entering a house leaves via its loft, adding to the risk of condensation in the loft and reducing the energy efficiency of the roof. This airflow, together with the ventilation of the loft space, is not accounted for in standard diffusion-based methods of condensation risk analysis, which therefore do not apply to cold pitched roofs. This paper describes the airflow routes between a house and its loft and the steps that can be taken to reduce the flow. The methods that can be used to measure the airtightness of ceilings are discussed and a method for assessing the condensation risk, taking account of the airflows, proposed. IP4/06 

Background ventilation of dwellings
All dwellings need fresh air – for occupants' health and comfort, to control condensation, and to ensure safe and efficient operation of combustion appliances. This review summarises current thinking on providing ventilation by design. BR162 

Background ventilators for dwellings
Trickle vents in window frames and airbricks in walls have been used to ventilate dwellings for many decades. However, the concept of background ventilation as part of an overall ventilation strategy did not appear in the Building Regulations until 1990. Initially, only simple manually adjustable background vents were used, but innovative vents incorporating automatic flow control and other features are now on the market. This paper discusses the philosophy behind background ventilation in Building Regulations, the types and merits of vents available, and a method of vent performance testing proposed in a forthcoming European Standard. IP2/03 

Carbon monoxide detectors
Combustion appliances in the home can generate levels of carbon monoxide (CO) that may affect the health of the occupants. Each year, about 60 accidental deaths occur in the UK from the use of these appliances and there are many more non-fatal incidents. This Guide makes recommendations for CO detection systems in the home, based on the requirements for early detection, audibility and the need to minimise cost. GG30 

Continuous mechanical ventilation in dwellings
This Digest deals with ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with and without heat recovery. It considers the characteristics of dwellings and their heating systems, and the design, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance of such systems. DG398 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
A series of five guides intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. They set out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. AP160 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fifth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with construction fabrication processes and internal and external finishes. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG5 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the fourth in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with handling materials, storage, spillage and disposal. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG4 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the third in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with haulage routes, vehicles and construction plant. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG3 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the second in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions associated with site preparation, demolition, earthworks and landscaping. Although techniques have not been validated under controlled conditions and therefore must be used with care, recommendations are drawn from cases where they have been found to be effective. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG2 

Controlling emissions of particles, vapour and noise on construction sites
This Guide is the first in a series intended to assist with the control of air pollution and noise emissions from construction sites. It sets out guidance on controlling pollution emissions through effective pre-project planning and management issues that are an essential part of any construction project. Other Guides in the series give methods for controlling air and noise pollution from various construction and demolition activities. Each title: £19.95 and £15 to BRE Connect members. Set of 5: £65 and £40 to BRE Connect members PG1 

Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation
This book summarises the advice available from FRS to designers of Smoke and Heat Exhaust Ventilation Systems (SHEVS) for atria and other buildings. It provides practical guidance on the design of smoke-control systems. It reflects current knowledge and is based on published and unpublished research. It also draws on the authors’ experience of design features required for regulatory purposes in many individual smoke-control applications. BR368 

Destratification of air in industrialised buildings
This paper describes how the problem of stratification is perceived by building occupiers and discusses types of equipment which can be used to destratify the air. IP9/95 

Domestic mechanical ventilation: guidelines for designers and installers
Guidelines are given on the design and installation of mechanical ventilation in typical UK housing, covering ducted extract systems and balanced supply and extract systems, with or without heat recovery. Characteristics of the dwelling, heating and ventilation systems, controls, fire precautions, installation, cleaning and maintenance are included. IP18/88 

Flow resistance and wind performance of some common ventilation terminals
This paper discusses the performance of several terminal designs. Such information can be used to ensure terminal behaviour is matched to system requirements. IP6/95 

Humidistat controlled extract fans: performance in dwellings
The project reported here demonstrated the efficiency of modern humidistat-controlled fans. This Information Paper will be of interest to manufacturers, specifiers, installers and householders.  IP5/99 

Improving air quality in homes with supply air windows
This Information Paper describes the development of supply air windows and summarises recent research by BRE and the Martin Centre. It also presents results of a modelling study for the design of a PSV system with supply air windows incorporated in two demonstration houses for a DTI Partners in Innovation project. IP6/03 

Improving air quality in urban environments
An introduction to the issues that the building design project team will need to be aware of when considering building developments and refurbishment projects. It focuses on outdoor pollution and sustainability, and provides guidance on how to address air quality issues during the design and construction process. Air quality is an issue that building design teams, developers and contractors increasingly will need to consider when planning a new development or refurbishment project. With increasing levels of pollution in urban areas, the need to improve air quality is increasing. In response, local authority planning and environmental health departments are demanding that those who specify, design or construct buildings should minimise pollution emitted during construction and the building's subsequent use, and the amount that infiltrates the building.  BR474 

Improving ventilation in housing
Without enough ventilation, homes suffer from condensation. Central heating, making windows and doors more airtight, sealed double glazing and sealing of chimneys and flues have made it necessary to change the way existing houses are ventilated. Changes in the way new homes are ventilated have been reflected in updates to building regulations. Refurbishment gives an opportunity for improving ventilation in existing housing so builders and householders need to be aware of the guidance in local building regulations. This Good Repair Guide explains the changes to Approved Document F1 and gives advice on avoiding problems. GR21 

Indoor air 99 proceedings
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Edinburgh, August 1999. Five volumes or PDFs on CD ROM. AP129 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). BR299 

Indoor air quality in homes
This describes the results of a BRE study on the indoor environment, providing data on the range and concentrations of pollutants in UK homes and identifying the factors such as household characteristics and occupant activities, which influence the level of pollutants. The study was carried out in collaboration with the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). This second part contains the statistical data and results obtained in the indoor environment study. BR300 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This report is a supplement to Air Quality in Homes in England (BR433), on BRE’s national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey, which is described in the main report, was designed to extend and refine knowledge of baseline levels of indoor pollutants in homes, to identify any regional differences in pollutant levels and to permit a detailed analysis of factors associated with high indoor pollutant concentrations. This report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and reports on the results of the statistical analysis of factors influencing indoor pollutant concentrations. BR446 

Indoor air quality in homes in England
This gives results of BRE's national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England. The survey lasted for 17 months from October 1997. The pollutants measured were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds. The report describes the sampling methods, summarises the levels of pollutants found, and gives results of the statistical analysis. BR433 

Maintaining good air quality in your home
Helps you achieve good indoor air quality in your home by proper use of features designed to give adequate ventilation. It also advises on the sources of pollutants that may be present or introduced into your home. IP9/04 

Minimising air infiltration in office buildings
This report is an outline guide to design, setting out the principles of providing an effective airtightness layer, and advising on some of the common pitfalls which can reduce the performance of this layer. BR265 

Natural ventilation in atria for environment and smoke control
This guide introduces the key principles of natural environmental ventilation and smoke control in the event of fire, considers how to combine these strategies to achieve a successful design, describes a simple design tool, and presents two examples and their design implications. The guide aims to increase awareness of the possibilities for combining natural environmental ventilation in atria with smoke control so this can be considered at the detailed design stage, thus optimising performance. BR375 

Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings
Gives designers and building users design guidance for using natural ventilation in energy-efficient non-domestic buildings. DG399 

Night ventilation for cooling office buildings
Night ventilation is a low-energy strategy for cooling a building, providing a more comfortable environment for the occupants during hot daytime periods. It works by using natural or mechanical ventilation to cool the surfaces of the building fabric at night so that it can absorb heat during the day. This paper describes the weather and building design conditions for an effective application of the technique to office buildings.  IP4/98 

Passive stack ventilation systems: design and installation
Passive stack ventilation is a means of removing unwanted moisture from dwellings. The proper design and installation of these systems is vital to their successful performance. This paper gives detailed guidance on this subject and is in support of the 1995 edition of the Approved Document to Part F of the Building Regulations. IP13/94 

Positive input ventilation
Positive input ventilation is the usual name for systems in which ‘fresh’ air is supplied to a dwelling from the roof space by means of a fan. While there is anecdotal evidence that these units can improve indoor humidity conditions, measurements of performance have been few. This paper summarises results from performance measurements in a BRE test house and in 15 occupied dwellings. It will be of interest to dwelling designers, landlords and domestic property managers. IP12/00 

Testing the performance of terminals for ventilation systems, chimneys and flues
This paper discusses a testing procedure that establishes both the wind performance and flow resistance of free-standing terminals. It can be used as a basis for terminal manufacturers to test their designs. IP5/95 

The BRESIM technique for measuring air infiltration rates in large dwellings
BRESIM is a simplified technique for non-specialists to determine approximately the infiltration and ventilation rates of large and complex buildings. This paper describes the underlying basis of BRESIM, including the equipment and procedures used, and its application to two dissimilar buildings. IP11/90 

The passive gas tracer method for monitoring ventilation rates in buildings
BRE has developed a new technique for measuring time-averaged ventilation rates in occupied buildings using a perfluorocarbon tracer gas. The new technique has the potential to allow routine performance monitoring of both natural ventilation and forced air supply systems, thereby helping users to save energy and to meet the health, safety and comfort requirements of the building's occupants. IP13/95 

Trickle ventilators in offices
Trickle ventilators are identified in Approved Document F as a means of providing natural background ventilation in office buildings. Research at BRE determined their optimum open areas, and their effectiveness was assessed by airflow modelling, laboratory tests and field measurements in occupied offices. Purpose-designed trickle ventilators, sized according to these criteria and incorporated in the overall ventilation strategy of an office building, can provide the required background ventilation during the heating season without compromising thermal comfort. IP12/98 

Use of BREFAN to measure the air tightness of non-domestic buildings
BREFAN is a fan pressurisation rig for testing buildings for air leakage. Field measurements with BREFAN in two office buildings are described, and show how a 'leakage' index can be evaluated and used as a diagnostic measure of constructional quality. IP6/89 

Ventilation and indoor air quality in schools
Reports on the investigation of ventilation performance of schools. Provides ventilation rates and indoor air quality from a study conducted in eight UK primary schools. IP6/05 

Ventilation, air tightness and indoor air quality in new homes
A report on a study of ventilation and indoor air quality in 37 homes built in England since 1995. It assesses whether the guidance in the 1995 revision of Building Regulations Approved Document Part F is effective at providing adequate ventilation and good indoor air quality in domestic buildings, and thereby minimising the risks to health and maximising the comfort of the occupants. It improves the understanding of the relationships between air leakage, ventilation and indoor air quality. BR477 

Ventilators: ventilation and acoustic effectivness
This Information Paper discusses work carried out on window-mounted trickle ventilators and through-wall ventilators to assess their acoustic and ventilation properties. This was done to provide information on the acoustic performance of ventilators as a basis for providing advice for noisy areas and for supporting the development of national and international standards. IP4/99