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Home > Environment and services > Water supply, drainage and sanitation

Water supply, drainage and sanitation


A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01 

A basis for the revision of scales for sanitary accomodation in schools
Rational scales of provision for sanitary appliances in schools are proposed, based on data collected on the use of cloakroom accommodation collected in a number of schools and incorporated in a computer simulation model. IP10/82 

Access to domestic underground drainage systems
Examines the requirements for access to underground drains and recommends typical drainage systems. DG292 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes.  AP241 

BRESOAK
Soakaways have been the traditional way to dispose of stormwater from buildings and paved areas remote for a public sewer or watercourse. In recent years they have been used in urban, fully sewered areas to limit the impact on discharge of new upstream building works and to avoid costs of sewer upgrading outside a development. Soakaways are seen as an increasingly sustainable option for stormwater control and disposal. BRESOAK software helps designers to plan soakaways in ways that are consistent with the advice in BRE Digest 365 Soakaway design, which is included as a pdf file on the CD. It will save time for developers and engineers in designing soakaways, and give confidence that the results will be fully in line with Digest 365 and acceptable for building control purposes. AP246 

BREVAC: A mechanised method of emptying sanitation chambers
To complement the development of permanent double-pit latrines in developing countries, BRE has developed a mechanised method for empying all types of on-site sanitation system. This method, known as BREVAC, dispenses with manual emptying which is often offensive and hazardous to health. IP1/84 

Dealing with noisy plumbing
Noise in plumbing and heating systems is best avoided by getting the design and installation right in the first place. But there are ways of reducing noise in existing systems. This Good Repair Guide looks at some typical problems and suggests practical solutions. GR32 

Disposing of rainwater
Getting rainwater off the roof, down to the ground and away from the building is not always as simple as it seems. All the rain falling on the building has to be led down to ground level without spilling, and into a below-ground drainage system. And that system has to be able to cope with potentially large and sudden influxes of storm water. This Guide shows how to avoid some common pitfalls in roof drainage systems and soakaways for new housing. GG38 

Drainage design for buildings with reduced water use
This Information Paper reports on a project on the effect of low water usage in domestic buildings on the upstream parts of the drain and sewer system, i.e. those parts most likely to be affected by reductions in water use and therefore most likely to block. It summarises the types and characteristics of appliances used for reducing water consumption, estimates current and future water volumes, and gives guidance for design of drain and sewer systems for systems for up to 10 houses.  IP1/04 

Hard-water scale in hot water storage cylinders
Examines the formation of scale, usually calcium carbonate, in once-through hot water storage cylinders, and makes design recommendations to minimise scale deposition and its effects. IP13/93 

Legionnaires' disease - the implications for design and use of hot water systems
A review of knowledge of the time (late 1984) to provide guidance on design and operation of water supply systems to help avoid the risk of Legionnaires' disease. It aims to draw attention to the fact that outwardly trivial aspects of water systems may encourage bacterial multiplication. IP5/85 

Low-water-use washdown WCs
Describes research by BRE into the viability of flushing WCs using a reduced volume of water. Suitable performance in use was a primary consideration and work was confined mostly to wash-down pans. BR115 

Mound filter systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater
Mound filter systems are used to treat wastewater from structures not served by public sewer. This guide describes mound filters which deal with domestic wastewater after primary treatment (settlement) and after secondary treatment (aerobic or anaerobic biological treatment). It draws on work from around the world, including the UK. The filtration system was developed from the NODAK system which was first used in North Dakota in the twentieth century; more recently it was developed into the Wisconsin mound sytem. The design guidance covers the most common types of mound filters that are likely to be employed in the UK in the near future. The guide includes an introduction to wastewater treatment, guidelines on construction and maintenance of mound filters, design criteria, and trouble-shooting solutions.  BR478 

Potential health risks associated with the use of expansion vessels with hot water installations
Gives results of a project to investigate the potential for expansion vessels, installed with unvented hot water storage systems, to support and encourage the growth of bacteria, including Legionella. BR309 

Preventing hot water scaldings in bathrooms: using TMVs
Hot bath water is responsible for the highest number of fatal and severe scald injuries in the home. Young and old are most at risk. There is no legal requirement to limit water delivery temperatures in homes, but several recent changes in regulations and recommended practice have been introduced. This Paper explains how to reduce the risk of scalding and contains technical guidance on the selection, installation and maintenance of products to provide hot water at temperatures to minimise severe scalding risks to users of baths and showers.  IP14/03 

Protecting pipes from freezing
Each winter a spell of cold weather catches a lot of builders and householders napping, resulting in frozen water supplies, burst pipes and consequent building damage. This is the time to think about taking steps to prevent a repeat performance. The cost of repairing the damage caused by water from a burst pipe is out of all proportion to the cost of installing protection. This Good Building Guide looks at how to prevent freezing of water supplies, inside and out, with advice for both new and existing buildings. GG40 

Rats in drains
Rats carry diseases, contaminate food and cause damage in buildings. This IP suggests ways of preventing them from entering buildings through drainage systems, and describes methods for their eradication or limitation. IP6/90 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 describes the historical development of reed bed systems with some of the current variations in design. It also covers the expected performance of such systems, and their application. Part 2 deals with designing, constructing and maintaining reed beds. GG42/1 

Reed beds
Proposed revisions to the Building Regulations make reference to reed bed systems for treating domestic wastewater. This Guide provides guidance on typical applications and current minimum design specifications for reed beds treating settled domestic wastewater. Part 1 of this Guide deals with the application and specification of reed beds. Part 2 sets out the design and construction parameters, and maintenance requirements. It explains the role of the plants in a reed bed and describes a test for sand used in the beds. GG42/2 

Reed beds for the treatment of domestic wastewater
This report provides an overview of the specification and design of reed bed systems for the treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of the UK climate and regulations. It is targeted at those wishing to gain an overview and clarification of the technologies available. Case studies of different types of system and application are included. BR420 

Repairing and replacing rainwater goods
Describes common defects in gutters and downpipes and gives advice on how to choose between replacement and repair. GR9 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG248 

Sanitary pipework
Digests 248 and 249 consider the design of unvented above-ground drainage systems for high and low-rise domestic, public and office buildings, based on performance criteria given in BS 5572: 1978. DG249 

Self-sealing waste valves for domestic use
This Information Paper is a revision of IP 5/05, which presented the results of an independent programme of laboratory and field testing to assess the performance of self-sealing waste valves under a range of operating conditions. It summarises the key features of the valve, and demonstrates its suitability for use as a waste valve for sanitary appliances, including discharges from unvented domestic water heaters and condensate from boilers and air conditioning units. It also discusses the evaluation of the valve as an air admittance valve for installation in domestic buildings and gives an update on recent developments in available products. IP8/07 

Spillage of flue gases from solid-fuel combustion appliances
This paper describes how the main types of solid-fuel appliance work and describes how to test them for spillage. IP7/94 

Unvented domestic hot water systems
This Digest summarises the differences between vented and unvented systems, explains how, in the absence of a vent, there is a need for safety devices and controls, describes the new Building Regulations procedures, and advises on the inspection of installations. DG308 

Unvented domestic hot-water systems
BRE papers given at the joint BRE/BBA seminar held in March 1986, dealing with how unvented systems would be affected by requirements for the prevention of back-siphonage and on the Model Water Bye-laws. BR125 

Unvented hot water storage systems: microbial growth in expansion vessels
The design of a hot water supply system is an important aspect in reducing the risk of bacterial growth. Poor design and maintenance of water services can lead to conditions where bacteria, such as legionella, can multiply and subsequently become aerosolised leading to an increased health risk for the users of a building. This paper gives advice on design, and lists available guidance documents. IP1/97 

Unvented hot water supply systems
The 1986 Model Water Byelaws permit the use, without a vent, of mains-fed hot water storage systems of over 15 litres capacity. With reference to the Building Regulations 1985 and British Standards, the need for safety devices and controls in the absence of and open vent are explained. IP9/90 

Water conservation
Water conservation has become increasingly important in the UK as demand for water has increased and shortfalls in supply have occurred. There is growing public awareness of the scarcity of water in some areas of the UK and of its economic value. The benefits of conserving water include: maintaining the availability of the water supply during drought periods; reduced pumping and treatment costs (with associated energy savings); wastewater reduction, protection of the environment and the possible reduction in costs for the consumer. IP15/98 

Water conservation design, installation and maintenance requirements for the use of low-flush WCs flushed siphonically or by valves
This Report describes the findings of an investigation into the installation, commissioning and maintenance requirements for low flush WCs in order to minimise the volume of water used in flushing. These findings were intended to prepare guidance and contractual provisions for users, designers, and installers. The work includes guidance for the design, installation and maintenance of low volume flush WCs for the UK. The guidance includes details of the various flushing mechanisms: WCs siphonically flushed (traditional UK practice), WCs flushed using valves (including flap-valve, drop-valve, interruptible flush and pressurised cistern) and dual-flush WCs.  BR328 

Water conservation: Part 1 - a guide for designers of low flush WCs, Part 2 - a guide for installation and maintenance of low flush WCs
Contains detailed information intended for designers of these appliances. IP8/97 

Water conservation: low flow showers and flow restrictors
This Paper contains information on the types of appliance available and their suitability for various applications, gathered from manufacturers, research bodies and standards. The guidance refers to, and complements, codes of practice and specifications for products. It also gives information on web sites. It will interest installers and specifiers of plumbing installations, and anyone specifying low-flow appliances in retrofit programmes or new build. IP2/00 

Water economy with the Skevington/BRE controlled flush valve for WCs
A method of reducing water consumption by WC suites is to convert existing cisterns so that each user can control the amount of water flushed. One device is the Skevington/BRE valve, designed to be versatile, cheap and easy to install. Monitoring of trial installations has shown the device to be reliable and capable of saving up to 40 per cent of the water normally used for WC flushing. IP12/83 

Water supply, drainage and sanitation pack
A valuable reference library of BRE Digests, Good Building Guides, Good Repair Guides and Information papers on water supply, drainage and sanitation. One of a series of 19 compilations of BRE expert guidance and advice and presented in an attractive ring binder for ease of use. Exceptional value. Features / Benefits Exceptional value 15 BRE publications compiled into a single binder Forms an easy to use library of key information and guidance Readership Construction professionals  AP266 

Weathering of plastics pipes and fittings
This Information Paper summarises work to evaluate the resistance of plastics pipes to artificial weathering. Most of the pipes and fittings tested discoloured severely, and became embrittled. However, some were affected much more than others. Plastics pipes should not be exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods unless known to be resistant to UV light. When specifying plastics piping systems, consider whether any parts will be exposed, establish whether the system is resistant to UV exposure, and take protective measures if appropriate. IP8/01