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Home > Environment and services > Wind, floods and climate

Wind, floods and climate


A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311 

A review of gale damage to buildings in the UK
On average, 200,000 buildings are damaged by high winds every year in the UK. The types of wind damage which have occurred to buildings and the features of construction which have made them more susceptible to damage are discussed, along with steps which could be taken to reduce wind damage to buildings. IP13/86 

A test rig for proof-testing building components against wind loads
Describes a test rig developed at BRE to generate suction loads in any plane on most non-porous substances. IP19/84 

Building in hot climates
A compendium of 35 BRE Overseas Building Notes covering materials (lime, materials in the Arabian Gulf, concrete, no-fines concrete, lightweight concrete, stabilised soil, bricks, mortar, metails, steelwork, timber, plastics, paints, bitumen), sanitation and sewage treatment, foundations, management of sites, comfort, thermal performance, roofs, avoiding faults and failures, building in earthquake areas, low-cost housing.  SO25 

Building in winter
Winter weather often makes it difficult for builders to get on with the job. In very severe winters, sites can be at a standstill for weeks. Even in less severe weather, building operations are more difficult and working hours are bound to be reduced. Frost, rain and wind can play havoc with newly built work unless precautions are taken. Some of these problems can be reduced by planning, good preparation of the site, care of stored materials and protection of completed work. This Guide gives tips and advice on how to keep interruptions to building to a minimum during winter weather, how to protect materials, and when it is vital to stop work. GG34 

Building overseas in warm climates
This Digest provides an introduction for those new to designing for warm climates and summarises the main sources of information available. DG302 

Buildings and tropical windstorms
Every year severe tropical windstorms occur causing extensive damage and disruption of communities. Examples are given of damage to different types of buildings, and the nature of the windflow around them is discussed. Advice is given on the assessment of wind loads, and on the design and construction of buildings to resist windstorms. IP23/81 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/1 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically-sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. DG350 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in this Part.  DG350/3 

Climate and site development
The factors of climate as they affect buildings, and how planning a climatically sensitive site layout can benefit building performance by reducing energy consumption and improving durability. References are listed in Part 3.  DG350/2 

Climate change
This Good Building Guide considers how the climate is changing, the potential risks this will bring to buildings and, as a consequence, how building design and construction will need to change. GG63 

Cyclone-resistant houses for developing countries
This report reviews the overseas work of BRE on the effects of winds on buildings. It describes the characteristics of windstorms and general principles for the location, structural design of low-cost houses, and construction details to enhance structural integrity during windstorms. BR131 

Design guide for wind loads on unclad framed building structures during construction
Supplement to 'The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures'. Wind forces on an unclad structure can be comparable to those when the building is clad but without the dead weight that can help counteract tensions due to uplift. This guide provides a quick but realistic assessment of these forces. BR173 

Directional driving rain indices for the United Kingdom
Driving rain indices are relevant to the weathering and staining of building facades and assessing the risk of rain penetration. They are the basis of BSI Draft for Development 93 'Methods for assessing exposure to wind-driven rain', which gives the full design method and driving rain maps for the whole of the UK. BR59 

Gale damage to buildings in the UK
This review shows the forms of damage caused to buildings by high winds, indicates the wind effects involved, and shows the ways in which the risks of damage may be reduced in design and construction. BR91 

Impact of climate change on building and building materials
This report describes predicted climate changes in the UK and how buildings may be affected. Three areas where impact will be experienced are: the construction process, the building fabric, and the indoor environment. Responses required through building regulations and standards are suggested. (Available on CD ROM 11/98) BR361 

Investigation into the structural adequacy of relocatable buildings under wind loading
Gives results of an assessment of the structural adequacy of single-storey relocatable buildings of the sort particularly vulnerable to damage during the severe storms in England in early 1990. Suggests measures to reduce their vulnerability to wind damage. BR215 

New materials in hot climates
Gives guidance on the selection and use of building materials and products that are available for use in tropical countries, including plastics, roofing membranes, sealants, thermal insulating materials and surface coatings. DG382 

Repairing flood damage
These four guides deal with repairs to damage caused by flooding. Part 1 gives advice on cleaning the building in the first few days after the water has receded: such action can reduce the reoccupation time and minimise repairs and replacement. Part 2 deals with the treatment and repair of floors, and draining under-floor areas and basements. Information is given on drying, ventilation, measuring moisture contents, and reinstatement of flooring. Part 3 covers the treatment and repair of foundations and walls affected by flooding. This advice is given for solid, cavity, timber-frame and non-traditional walls. Information is also given on wall finishes. Part 4 gives advice on equipment, partitions, doors, windows and fittings in a building damaged by flood. It deals with the period after the initial cleaning, inspection, drying and repair of each item. GR11 

Repairing flooded buildings: an insurance industry guide to investigation and repair
Flood damage is a complex area, in terms of insurance and building repair issues. This publication has been compiled by the Flood Repairs Forum to rationalise and simplify the issues involved, with the aim of improving service to the building owner from the insurance, loss adjusting, surveying and contracting sectors. It follows the sequence of events in a flood claim - insurance, inspection, drying, monitoring, repair, health and safety, and damage avoidance. It helps those who are less experienced in flood repairs to understand the basic insurance and technical issues involved, and the key elements of customer care - recognising that communication and management of expectation rest at the heart of many of the difficulties which can occur. EP69 

Repairing frost damage
This Guide gives advice on diagnosing frost damage and its likely course, and method of repair. Advice is given on the choice of whether to replace or repair, to help surveyors and contractors decide on appropriate action. GR20 

Sultanate of Oman: building conditions and materials
This report is intended for the use of British construction firms, consultants, contractors, building materials suppliers, operating in Oman. BR92 

The October gale of 1987: damage to buildings and structures in the south east of England
A report, with charts and statistical tables, of structural damage resulting from the hurricane force winds during the night of 1516 October 1987. BR138 

The assessment of wind loads
This is the eighth in a series of Digests which is compatible with the proposed BS 6399: Part 2. Internal pressures do not affect overall wind loads on an enclosed structure because their contributions cancel out over all internal faces. However, they do affect the overall loading on external wall or roofs and on internal walls. DG346/8 

The assessment of wind loads
Introduction to a series compatible with BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972.  DG346 

The assessment of wind loads
The principal part in a series compatible with the forthcoming BS 6399: Part 2 which incorporates several changes from the previous CP3 Chapter V: Part 2: 1972. Part 1 of this Digest series considers the assessment of wind loads on domestic and industrial buildings, and associated constructions. DG346/1 

The assessment of wind loads
This Part deals with the methods developed to categorise structures according to their sensitivity to dynamic behaviour when subjected to wind loading. DG346/2 

The assessment of wind loads
The 'full' method of BS 6399: Part 2 is used to derive the appropriate gust wind speeds from the site hourly mean wind speed when designing static and mildly dynamic structures. DG346/4 

The assessment of wind loads
Data is given on pressure coefficients for the walls and roofs of bluff-shaped buildings to enable loads to be calculated. The procedure outlined in this Digest is limited to rectangular buildings with flat, gabled or hipped roofs, but can be applied to those of more complex shape. DG346/6 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of more frequent parent wind speeds in the UK from the extreme wind speeds given by Part 3. DG346/7 

The assessment of wind loads
The assessment of wind speeds over topographic features such as hills, ridges, escarpments and cliffs for wind load calculations. DG346/5 

The assessment of wind loads
Part 3 deals with the derivation of the hourly mean wind speed for sites in the UK. This site wind speed is then used in Part 4 as the basis for determining the appropriate wind speed to be allowed for in the design of a structure. DG346/3 

The gales of January and February 1990: damage to buildings and structures
Assesses the scale of damage, and implications for the building industry, of the 35-day period which saw many deaths and injuries as buildings collapsed and more than a million houses were damaged. Concludes that buildings designed according to sound practice given in codes and standards behaved well in the gales. BR248 

Wind actions on buildings and structures
This Digest provides information for engineers and architects about the nature of wind action on and around buildings and structures. It describes common types and causes of wind damage, and shows how good design can minimise wind actions on buildings. The Digest also discusses the principal differences between BS 6399: Part 2 and the previous wind loading Code of practice. DG406 

Wind around tall buildings
Describes wind flow around tall buildings, shows how to decide at an early design stage whether a building is likely to give a satisfactory environment, and suggests measures to achieve safe and comfortable conditions, particularly in open air pedestrian areas. DG390 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/2 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/3 

Wind loading on buildings
This Digest provides background information to ensure BS 6399-2 is applied correctly. Part 1 uses a question-and-answer format arranged in the same order as the Standard. Parts 2 and 3 provide worked examples of the BS 6399-2 method. The guidance will help users to select the choices in BS 6399-2 that are equivalent to previous practice. It will also help to eliminate conservatism in the standard method by considering wind direction, even when the orientation of a building is unknown. The Digest is aimed at architects, engineers and professionals who need to know the effect of wind on buildings, and design options that minimise it. DG436/1 

Wind loads on canopy roofs
Deals with the assessment of wind loads on free-standing canopy roofs without walls including the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents. It should be used in conjunction with Digest 346 'The assessment of wind loads'. DG284 

Wind loads on roof-based photovoltaic systems
This Digest reviews the wind loading information appropriate for roof-based photovoltaic (PV) systems and gives recommendations and guidance for the design of roof-based PV systems for wind loads. It has been developed from work undertaken during a Partners in Innovation project funded by DTI. DG489 

Wind loads on temporary stage decks
Temporary stages for outdoor events are generally free-standing structures with a flat timber deck supported on system scaffolding or other proprietary systems. General guidance on the design, use and procurement of these structures is available from the Institution of Structural Engineers, but this does not cover wind loads on temporary stage decks. This Digest provides a procedure for designing temporary stage structures for wind loads that follows BS 6399-2. DG483 

Wind loads on unclad structures
This Special Digest provides guidance on designing lattice structures and individual members for wind loading. Much of the current UK guidance for wind loads on frames, lattice structures and individual members is based on CP3: Chapter V: Part 2. This Standard, which was withdrawn in 2001, gave force coefficients for a range of unclad structures, including single and multiple frames, lattice structures and individual members. CP3-V has now been superseded by BS 6399-2, which is principally applicable to buildings and their components and includes only limited information on structural members and unclad structures. SD5 

Wind scour of gravel ballast on roofs
This Digest gives a method of estimating the threshold wind speeds for scour. It is based on published information from wind tunnel tests conducted for this specific purpose and should be used in conjunction with Digest 346, Parts 1 to 8, and with Digest 295 if paving stones are used on the roof. DG311