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The standard penetration test (SPT): methods and use

Series/doc. No Report Report R 143
Year 1995
Abstract Provides guidance on the use of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) in geotechnical engineering. Used world-wide in a variety of ground conditions, this simple test is relied upon to provide information about the properties of soils and weak rocks and as a basis for design. The report examines the variability of SPT results, whether caused by the methods of drilling and testing or influenced by ground conditions. The principal uses of the SPT are examined, i.e. ground investigation profiling, soil classification, the determination of geotechnical design parameters and for direct design. Suggested methods are proposed and outlined for the determination from SPT results of geotechnical parameters for granular soils, cohesive soils, weak rocks and chalk. Similarly, suggested direct design methods are discussed for the settlements of shallow foundations on granular soil, for piles in soils, weak rocks and chalk, and for estimating liquefaction potential and sheet-pile driveability in granular soils.
ISBN 9780860174196
Subject(s) Civil engineering, infrastructure and public utilities
Site investigation
Supplement Civil & Structural. To subscribe to The Construction Information Service please telephone Customer Care on +44 1344 328300
Publisher CIRIA
Publisher History CIRIA was formerly known as the Construction Industry Research and Information Association. They are a member-based research and information organisation who publish reports and technical papers covering building and civil engineering as well as transport and utilities infrastructure.
Table Of Contents
List of figures 6
List of tables 9
Notations 10
1 Introduction 13
2 The evolution of the standard penetration test (SPT) 16
3 UK Practice 20
3.1 The British standard method of test 20
3.2 UK boring techniques 22
3.3 UK standard penetration test equipment 24
3.4 Test procedures in current use 27
3.5 Synopsis 28
4 Practice outside the UK 29
4.1 National standards 29
4.2 The issmfe European and international reference test procedures 31
4.3 International practice and equipment 33
4.4 Further developments 40
4.5 Synopsis 40
5 The influence of different practices and equipment on penetration resistance 42
5.1 Drilling or boring technique 43
5.2 Test equipment 50
5.3 Test method 55
5.4 Synopsis 57
6 The influence of ground conditions on penetration resistance 58
6.1 The SPT in granular soil 58
6.2 The SPT in cohesive soil 59
6.3 Weak and weathered rocks 67
6.4 Synopsis 70
7 SPT Applications 71
7.1 Profiling 73
7.2 Classification 74
7.3 Parameter determination 75
7.4 Direct design methods 76
8 Determination of geotechnical parameters 77
8.1 Estimation of parameters in granular soils 78
8.2 Estimation of parameters in cohesive soils 84
8.3 Estimation of parameters in weak rock 89
8.4 Estimation of parameters in chalk 91
9 Direct Design Methods 95
9.1 Estimation of settlements of shallow foundations on granular soil 95
9.2 Design of piles in soils, weak rocks and chalk 101
9.3 Liquefaction potential in granular soils 105
9.4 Estimation of sheet pile drivability 107
10 Recommendations for the use of the SPT 109
10.1 SPT field methods 109
10.2 Interpretation 113
10.3 Supervision and training 115
10.4 Application of SPT test results 115
10.5 Further work 116
References 117
Appendix 1 International Reference Test Procedure IRTP 127
Appendix 2 SPT energy measurement 132


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