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Selecting package wastewater treatment works

Series/doc. No Project Report Project Report PR 72
Year 2001
Abstract Reviews UK and international practice for the design, assessment and operation of small wastewater treatment systems that serve population equivalents of less then 2000.
ISBN 9780860178729
Subject(s) Civil engineering, infrastructure and public utilities
Public health/water engineering
Supplement Civil & Structural. To subscribe to The Construction Information Service please telephone Customer Care on +44 1344 328300
Publisher CIRIA
Publisher History CIRIA was formerly known as the Construction Industry Research and Information Association. They are a member-based research and information organisation who publish reports and technical papers covering building and civil engineering as well as transport and utilities infrastructure.
Table Of Contents
Acknowledgements 7
List of figures 15
List of tables and boxes 16
Glossary 17
Abbreviations 20
1 Introduction 21
1.1 Background 21
1.2 Objectives 21
1.3 Scope and definitions 21
1.4 Structure and use of report 23
2 Wastewater and its treatment 25
2.1 Waste water constituents and transfer 25
2.2 Basic assessments 26
2.3 Assessments based on surveys 29
2.4 Effluent quality requirements 30
2.5 Principal methods of wastewater treatment 34
2.6 Types of treatment system 36
2.7 System selection 38
3 International review of package plant practice 41
3.1 US perspective 41
3.2 European standards 42
3.3 UK situation 44
4 Assessing flow and loads 47
4.1 Diurnal flow and load variations 47
4.2 Flow and load balancing 50
4.3 Annual flow variations 54
4.4 Designing for annual flow variations 54
5 Package plant design and costs 55
5.1 Influent requirements 55
5.2 Flowsheets 56
5.3 Loading rates 58
5.4 Package plant treatment capacities 62
5.5 Sludge production 66
5.6 Costs 67
6 Plant material and construction 71
6.1 General 71
6.2 Biological filters 72
6.3 Primary sedimentation and secondary settling tanks (primary and humus) 73
6.4 Rotating biological contractors 74
6.5 Submerged and biological aerated filters 74
6.6 Continuous activated sludge plants 75
6.7 Sequence batch reactors 76
7 Environmental aspects, site selection and plant installation 77
7.1 Environmental aspects 77
7.2 Site selection and specification 78
7.3 Plant installation, commissioning and ownership 79
8 Safety, operation and maintenance 53
8.1 Safety 53
8.2 Package plant operation 85
8.3 Routine monitoring and cleaning 86
8.4 Servicing and maintenance 86
9 Framework for package plant selection 89
9.1 Selection procedure 89
9.2 Stage 1 - consult planning authority and environmental regulator 90
9.3 Stage 2 - determine performance requirements 90
9.4 Stage 3 - assess pollution load 91
9.5 Stage 4 - select potential process options 92
9.6 Stage 5 - identify most cost-effective options 96
References 99
Appendices 103
A - survey of UK package-plant variants 103
B - plant performance data 112
C - process selection checklist 114


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