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Design of normal concrete mixes. 2nd edition

Series/doc. No Report Report 331
Year 1997
Abstract The basic procedure for this mix design method is applicable to concrete for most purposes including pavements which are specified by compressive strength. The basic procedure is restricted to designing concrete mixes to meet workability, strength and durability requirements using Portland cements and natural aggregates, or coarse air-cooled slag. It has been found possible to add a new modification to allow the method to be applied to mixes incorporating pulverised-fuel ash (pfa) or using Portland pulverised-fuel ash cement. Guidance is given on the design of mixes incorporating ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbfs) or using Portland-blastfurnace cements. The general principles and basic concepts are given in the Introduction. After this the publication is divided into three parts. Part one gives the background information which is required to understand the mix design procedure. Part two describes the mix design process and contains all the basic information in the form of tables and graphs for the application of the method to most concretes designed for compressive strength. A standardised form has been developed for use with this method, and a number of worked examples is given. Part three deals with modifications to the mix design method to deal with air-entrained concrete, and for the design of mixes incorporating pfa or ggbfs.
History Second edition amended by B. K. Marsh.
ISBN 9781860811722
Author Teychenné, D. C. Franklin, R. E. and Erntroy, H. C.
Subject(s) Materials
In situ concrete/cement
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Publisher BRE
Publisher History IHS BRE Press is the publisher for the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Their activities include research, consultancy, training and certification. They publish a range of reports, information papers, guides, digests, and case studies covering all aspects of construction.
Table Of Contents
Foreword v
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Principles of proposed method 1
1.2 Basic concepts 1
Part one: Background information 5
2 The workability of concrete 5
2.1 Measurement of workability 5
2.2 Water content 5
2.3 Type and strength class of cement 5
3 The compressive strength of concrete 5
3.1 Age at test and curing conditions 5
3.2 Type and strength class of cement 6
3.3 Cement strength variation 6
3.4 Aggregate type and grading 6
3.5 Relationship between compressive strength and free-water/cement ratio 6
3.6 Type of mixing 6
4 Variability of concrete strength during production 6
4.1 Factors contributing to the overall variation 6
4.2 The distribution of results 7
4.3 Characteristic strength 7
4.4 Margin for mix design 7
Part two: The mix design process 9
5 Flow chart of procedures 9
5.1 Selection of target water/cement ratio (Stage 1) 9
5.2 Selection of free-water content (Stage 2) 13
5.3 Determination of cement content (Stage 3) 13
5.4 Determination of total aggregate content (Stage 4) 13
5.5 Selection of fine and coarse aggregate contents (Stage 5) 13
6 Trial mixes 17
6.1 Production of trial mixes 17
6.2 Tests on trial mixes 17
6.3 Adjustments to mix proportions 17
7 Examples of mix design 20
7.1 Example 1: unrestricted design 20
7.2 Example 2: mix restricted by maximum water/cement ratio 22
7.3 Example 3: mix restricted by minimum cement content 22
7.4 Example 4: mix restricted by maximum cement content 22
Part three: Modifications to mix design method 27
8 Design of air-entrained mixes 27
8.1 Effect of entrained air on strength 27
8.2 Effect of entrained air on workability 27
8.3 Density of air-entrained mixes 27
8.4 Modifications to the design process 28
8.5 Trial mixes of air-entrained concrete 28
8.6 Example of mix design 28
9 Design of Portland cement/pfa mixes 30
9.1 Introduction to pulverised-fuel ash (pfa) 30
9.2 Changes to the background information 30
9.3 Modifications to the mix design method 31
9.4 Example of mix design 32
9.5 Use of Portland pulverised-fuel ash cement 33
10 Design of Portland cement/ggbs mixes 36
10.1 Introduction to ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs) 36
10.2 Information on Portland cement/ggbs concrete 36
10.3 Advice on methods of mix design for Portland cement/ggbs concrete 36
References 38


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